Doubt is Their Product References

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Introduction: "Sound Science" or "Sounds Like Science"?
Chapter One: The Manufacture of Doubt
Chapter Two: Workplace Cancer before OSHA: Waiting for the Body Count
Chapter Three: America Demands Protection
Chapter Four: Why Our Children Are Smarter Than We Are
Chapter Five: The Enronization of Science
Chapter Six: Tricks of the Trade: How Mercenary Scientists Mislead You
Chapter Seven: Defending Secondhand Smoke
Chapter Eight: Still Waiting for the Body Count
Chapter Nine: Chrome-Plated Mischief
Chapter Ten: Popcorn Lung: OSHA Gives Up
Chapter Eleven: Defending the Taxicab Standard
Chapter Twelve: The Country Has a Drug Problem
Chapter Thirteen: Daubert: The Most Influential Supreme Court Ruling You've Never
Heard Of
Chapter Fourteen: The Institutionalization of Uncertainty
Chapter Fifteen: The Bush Administration's Political Science
Chapter Sixteen: Making Peace with the Past
Chapter Seventeen: Four Ways to Make the Courts Count
Chapter Eighteen: Sarbanes-Oxley for Science: A Dozen Ways to Improve Our Regulatory System

Introduction References

1. Belay ED, Bresee JS, Holman RC et al. Reye’s syndrome in the United States from 1981 through 1997. NEJM. 1999;340(18):1377–82.

2. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Advanced notice of proposed rulemaking: Labeling for salicylate-containing products. Fed. Reg. 1982;47: 57886.

3. Lurie P, Wolfe S. Aspirin and Reye’s syndrome. In Paradigms for Change: A public health textbook for medical, dental, pharmacy, and nursing students. Washington, DC: Public Citizen Health Research Group, unpublished.

4. Hilts P. Protecting America’s Health: The FDA, Business, and One Hundred Years of Regulation. New York: Knopf, 2003.

5. Brown and Williamson. Smoking and health proposal. Brown and Williamson document no. 680561778–1786, 1969. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nvs40f00. Accessed in June 2007.

6. Whitman CT. Effective policy making: The role of good science. Remarks at the National Academy of Science’s Symposium on Nutrient Over-enrichment of Coastal Waters. October 13, 2000. Available at: http://www.usembassy.it/file2001_01/alia/a0010407.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

7. Michaels D, Bingham E, Boden L. et al. Advice without dissent. Science. 2002;298(5594):703.

8. Luntz F. Memo: The environment: A cleaner, safer, healthier America; ca. 2003. Available at: http://www.ewg.org:16080/briefings/luntzmemo. Accessed in October 2006.

9. Herrick C, Jamieson D. Junk science and environmental policy: Obscuring public debate with misleading discourse. Philos Public Policy Q. 2001;21:11–16.

Chapter One References

1. Smoking and Health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare: Public Health Service, 1964. Public Health Service publication no. 1103.

2. Parascandola M. Science, industry, and tobacco harm reduction: A case study of tobacco industry scientists’ involvement in the National Cancer Institute’s Smoking and Health Program, 1964–1980. Public Health Rep. 2005;120:338–49.

3. Brown and Williamson. Project Truth: The smoking/health controversy: A view from the other side. Prepared for the Courier-Journal and Louisville Times. February 8, 1971. Brown and Williamson document no. 2110.06. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xpb72d00. Accessed in June 2007.

4. Sandefur T. Testimony: Hearing on the regulation of tobacco products. U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and the Environment; April 14, 1994. Available at: http://www.jeffreywigand.com/insider/7ceos.html. Accessed in June 2007.

5. Brenner M. The man who knew too much. Vanity Fair. May 1996: 170–192.

6. Kessler D. A Question of Intent: A Great American Battle with a Deadly Industry. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.

7. Brandt AM. The Cigarette Industry: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

8. Glantz S, Slade J, Bero L et al. The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

9. Kluger R. Ashes to Ashes: America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Random House, 1996.

10. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking: 25 Years of Progress. Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1989. DHHS publication no. (CDC) 89–8411.

11. The Health Consequences of Smoking. Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004.

12. Pearl R. Tobacco smoking and longevity. Science. 1938;87:216–17.

13. George Seldes on tobacco: Fifty years ahead of his time (A collection of more than fifty articles from Seldes’s newsletter, In Fact (1940–1950)). Available at: http://www.brasscheck.com/seldes/tobac.html. Accessed in June 2007.

14. Doll R, Hill A. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung: Preliminary report. BMJ. 1950:739–48.

15. Levin ML, Goldstein H, Gerhardt PR. Cancer and tobacco smoking: A preliminary report. JAMA. 1950;143:336–38.

16. Mills CA, Porter MM. Tobacco smoking habits and cancer of the mouth and respiratory system. Cancer Research. 1950;10:539–42.

17. Schrek R, Baker LA, Ballard GP et al. Tobacco smoking as an etiologic factor in disease. Part 1: Cancer. Cancer Research. 1950;10:49–58.

18. Wynder EL, Graham EA. Tobacco smoking as a possible etiologic factor in bronchiogenic carcinoma. JAMA. 1950;143:329–36.

19. Parascandola M. Skepticism, statistical methods, and the cigarette: A historical analysis of a methodological debate. Perspect Biol Med. 2004;47(42): 244–61.

20. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Background material on the cigarette industry client. December 15, 1953. Tobacco documents, R. J. Reynolds document no. 519124023/4027. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ssq31d00. Available in June 2007.

21. Miller KS. Voice of Power: Hill and Knowlton and Postwar Public Relations. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

22. Wilson BS. Legislative history of the Pesticide Residues Amendments of 1954 and the Delaney Clause of the Food Additives Amendment of 1958. In: Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1987:161–73.

23. U.S. News and World Report. Coverage at AMA convention (June 21, 1954). U.S. News and World Report. July 2, 1954:64–67.

24. Hammond E, Horn D. The relationship between human smoking habits and death rates. JAMA. 1954;155(15):1316–28.

25. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Press release: Re: Dr. Clarence Cook Little appointed director of Tobacco Industry Research Committee. Issued June 15, 1954. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/arx49c00. Accessed in June 2007.

26. Thompson C (Hill and Knowlton, Inc.). Memorandum to Kloepfer W Jr. (Tobacco Institute). Subject: Tobacco and Health Research procedural memo. October 18, 1968. Tobacco Institute document no. TIMN0071488/1491. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/upv92f00. Accessed in June 2007.

27. Tobacco Industry Research Committee (TIRC). Reports on Tobacco and Health Research. July–August 1963. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/avz60a00. Accessed in June 2007.

28. TIRC. Research Reports on Tobacco and Health. October 1960. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xof19d00. Accessed in June 2007.

29. TIRC. Research Reports on Tobacco and Health. April–May 1961. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ayx19d00. Accessed in June 2007.

30. TIRC. Research Reports on Tobacco and Health. September–October 1962. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jlf99d00. Accessed in June 2007.

31. TIRC. Research Reports on Tobacco and Health. December 1962. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/fwf19d00. Accessed in June 2007.

32. TIRC. Reports on Tobacco and Health Research. November–December 1963. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dpl94f00. Accessed in June 2007.

33. TIRC. Reports on Tobacco and Health Research. March–April 1964. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bvz60a00. Accessed in June 2007.

34. TIRC. Reports on Tobacco and Health Research. Winter 1964–1965. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jvz60a00. Accessed in June 2007.

35. TIRC. Reports on Tobacco and Health Research. September–October 1964. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/civ75f00. Accessed in June 2007.

36. Sterling TM. The Effects of Interview Bias on the Attempts to Measure the Relationship between Smoking and Health. Report no. 2: Evaluation of the Analysis and Procedures of the NHS Interview Data and Methods. [Report done under Special Project of the Council for Tobacco Research.] Council for Tobacco Research document no. CTRSP/FILES003743/3765. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xpd8aa00. Accessed in July 2007.

37. Proposal to study interviewer bias. Philip Morris document no. 2075715519/5520. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/coj37d00. Accessed in July 2007.

38. A proposal to explore the role of memory in epidemiologic studies, develop practical standards of significance, and improve scientific communication. Philip Morris document no. 2064229233/9247. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ayv93c00. Accessed in July 2007.

39. Koop CE. Foreword. In Glantz SA, Slade J, Bero L et al. The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

40. Haselbach C, Libert O. A tentative hypothesis on nicotine addiction. Report produced for the British-American Tobacco Co., May 30, 1963.

41. Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1965: Public law 89–92; 1965.

42. Drew EB. The quiet victory of the cigarette lobby: How it found the best filter yet: Congress. Atlantic Monthly. 1965;216(3):76–80.

43. Brown and Williamson. Smoking and health proposal. Brown and Williamson document no. 680561778–1786, 1969. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nvs40f00. Accessed in June 2007.

44. Panzer F. Letter to Kornegay HR. Subject: The Roper proposal. American Tobacco document no. 963012260–2263. May 1, 1972. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/crn15f00. Accessed in June 2007.

Chapter Two References

1. International Labour Organization, World Health Organization. Press release: Number of work-related accidents and illnesses continues to increase: ILO and WHO join in call for prevention strategies. Issued April 28, 2005. 

2. Brodeur P. Asbestos and Enzymes. New York: Ballantine, 1972.

3. Brodeur P. Expendable Americans. New York: Viking, 1973.

4. Brodeur P. Outrageous Misconduct: The Asbestos Industry on Trial. New York: Pantheon, 1985.

5. Castleman B. Asbestos: Medical and Legal Aspects, 5th ed. New York: Aspen, 2005.

6. Ozonoff D. Failed warnings: Asbestos-related disease and industrial medicine In: Bayer R, ed. Case Studies in the Politics of Professional Responsibility. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988:139–218.

7. Schneider A, McCumber D. An Air That Kills: How the Asbestos Poisoning of Libby, Montana, Uncovered a National Scandal. New York: Putnam, 2004.

8. Egilman D, Fehnel C, Bohme SR. Exposing the ‘‘myth’’ of ABC, ‘‘anything but chrysotile’’: A critique of the Canadian asbestos mining industry and McGill University chrysotile studies. Am J Ind Med. 2003;44(5):540–57.

9. Tweedale G. Magic Mineral to Killer Dust. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

10. McCulloch J. Asbestos: Its Human Cost. New York: University of Queensland Press, 1986.

11. Frist W. Asbestos litigation crisis (Senate proceedings, November 22, 2003). Congressional Record. 2003:S15514–S15515.

12. Annual report of Her Majesty’s Lady Inspectors. In Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Factories and Workshops for the Year 1898. Part II: Reports. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1898:172.

13. Hoffman FL. Mortality from respiratory diseases from dusty trades (inorganic dusts) [bulletin]. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Whole no. 231, Industrial Accidents and Hygiene Series no. 17. June 1918.

14. Cherniak M. The Hawk’s Nest Incident: America’s Worst Industrial Disaster. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.

15. Trudeau Institute History. Available at: http://www.trudeauinstitute.org/info/history/history.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

16. Dreessen WC, Dallavalle JM, Edwards TI et al. A study of asbestosis in the asbestos textile industry. U.S. Treasury Department, Public Health Service. Public Health bulletin no. 241. August 1938.

17. Industrial Hygiene Foundation of America. Report of preliminary dust investigation for Asbestos Textile Institute. June 18, 1947. Pittsburgh, PA.

18. Brown V. The management viewpoint: Discussion. In: Vorwald AJ, ed. Pneumoconiosis: Beryllium, Bauxite Fumes, Compensation. New York: Hoeber, 1950;567–72.

19. Hueper, W. Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases. Baltimore, MD: Thomas, 1942.

20. Asbestosis and cancer of the lung. [Editorial]. JAMA. 1949;140(9):1219–20.

21. Conklin G. Cancer and the environment. Sci Am. 1949;180(1):11–15.

22. Proctor RN. The Nazi War on Cancer. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.

23. Vorwald AJ, Durkan TM, Pratt PC. Experimental studies of asbestosis. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med. 1951;3(1):1–43.

24. Asbestos Textile Institute Air Hygiene and Manufacturing Committee. Meeting minutes. March 7, 1957.

25. Pritchard J (Pathologist, Wayne State University College of Medicine, Department of Industrial Medicine and Hygiene). Pathology report: William Cooling (Autopsy conducted at Montreal General Hospital, January 1949).

26. Smoking and Health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare: Public Health Service, 1964. Public Health Service publication no. 1103.

27. Selikoff IJ, Churg J, eds. Biological effects of asbestos. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1965;132(1):1–766.

28. Brodeur P. The magic mineral. New Yorker. October 12, 1968.

29. Cadwalader, Wickersham, and Taft (lawyers for Asbestos Textile Institute). Letter to Selikoff I. October 26, 1964.

30. About the speaker: Matthew M. Swetonic. Addendum to meeting minutes for Asbestos Textile Institute general meeting. Key Bridge Marriott, Arlington, VA, June 7, 1973.

31. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Division of Scientific, Technical, and Environmental Affairs; ca. 1989. Accessed in December 2007.

32. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Division of Scientific, Technical, and Environmental Affairs. Case study: Asbestos and human health; ca. 1989. Accessed in December 2007.

33. Filteau PA (General Manager, Quebec Asbestos Mining Association [QAMA]). Special winter meeting, Grand Bahama Hotel and Country Club. January 31, 1968: 8.

34. Selikoff IJ, Hammond E, Churg J. Asbestos exposure, smoking, and neoplasia. JAMA. 1968;204(2):106–12.

35. Evans EE (director, Medical Division, Chambers Works) on behalf of Brothers WC (manager, Chambers Works). Letter to Mangelsdorff A (Calco Chemical Co.). June 18, 1947. Accessed in December 2007.

36. Scott TS. Carcinogenic and Chronic Toxic Hazards of Aromatic Amines. New York: Elsevier, 1962.

37. Norton TH. Dyestuffs for American Textile and Other Industries. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce Special Agents Series, no. 96, 1915.

38. National Academy of Engineering. Technology and Environment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1989.

39. Dietrich H, Dietrich B. Ludwig Rehn (1849–1930). Pioneering findings on the aetioliogy of bladder cancers. World J Urol. 2000;19:151–53.

40. Hueper W. Occupational and Environmental Cancers of the Urinary System. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1969.

41. International Labour Organization. Cancer of the Bladder among Workers in Aniline Factories. Studies and Reports Series F, no. 1. February 1921.

42. U.S. Tariff Commission. Dyes. (Prepared in response to requests from the Committee on Finance of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives). War Changes in Industry Series, report no. 19, 1946.

43. DuPont, the Autobiography of an American Enterprise. New York: Scribner, 1952.

44. Hounshell D, Smith JK. Jr. Science and Corporate Strategy: Du Pont R&D, 1902–1980. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

45. Smith DT (supervisor, Protection Division). Letter to Queener JS (manager, Safety and Fire Protection Division). Subject: History of beta-naphthylamine manufacture: Chamber Works. September 22, 1958. Accessed in December 2007.

46. Michaels D. Waiting for the body count: Corporate decision making and bladder cancer in the U.S. dye industry. Med Anthro Q. 1988; 2:215–232.

47. Michaels D. When science isn’t enough: Wilhelm Hueper, Robert A.M. Case and the limits of scientific evidence in preventing occupational bladder cancer. Int J Occup Environ Health. 1995;1:278–288.

48. Washburn V. Abstract of discussion. JAMA. 1936;107:1438–39.

49. Wignall TH. Incidence of disease of the bladder in workers in certain chemicals. BMJ. 1929;2:291–93.

50. Agran L. The Cancer Connection. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1977.

51. Hueper WC. Wilhelm Hueper’s autobiography. Unpublished manuscript.

52. Hueper WC, Wiley FH, Wolfe HD. Experimental production of bladder tumors in dogs by administration of beta-naphthylamine. J Ind Hyg Toxicol. 1938;20:46–84.

53. Evans E. Causative agents and protective measures in the anilin tumor of the bladder. J Urol. 1936;38:212–15.

54. Agran L. Interview with Dr. Wilhelm C. Hueper, MD; December 1975. In: Breslow L, ed. A History of Cancer Control in the United States, 1946–1971. DHEW publication no. (NIH) 79–1519, 1979.

55. Bent S. Tetraethyl lead fatal to makers. New York Times. June 22, 1925:3.

56. Markowitz G, Rosner D. Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.

57. Schwartz BS, Bolla KI, Stewart W et al. Decrements in neurobehavioral performance associated with mixed exposure to organic and inorganic lead. Am J Epidemiol. 1993;137(9):1006–21.

58. Schwartz BS, Stewart WF, Bolla KI et al. Past adult lead exposure is associated with longitudinal decline in cognitive function. Neurology. 2000;55:1144–50.

59. Otto GB. Operation of new plant/chronological history: Manufacture of beta napthylamine. Unpublished report. April 13, 1953. Accessed in December 2007.

60. Weiss RJ. Email to Fayerweather WE and Karns E. October 25, 1991.

61. Epstein S. Presentation of the first award of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health to Dr. Wilhelm C. Hueper. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1975;271:457–59.

62. Case R. The misbegotten camel. Unpublished manuscript. 1983.

63. Case R. Tumors of the urinary tract as an occupational disease in several industries. Ann Royal College Surgery. 1966;39:213–35.

64. Case RAM. Incidence of death from tumours of the urinary bladder. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1953;7(1):14–19.

65. Case R, Hosker, M, McDonald D et al.Tumors of the urinary bladder in workmen engaged in the manufacture and use of certain dyestuff intermediates in the British chemical industry: Part 1: The role of aniline, benzidine, alphanaphthylamine, and beta-naphthylamine. British J Ind Med. 1954;11:75–96.

66. Case RAM, Hosker ME. Tumour of the urinary bladder as an occupational disease in the rubber industry in England and Wales. British J Prev Soc Med. 1954;48:39–50.

67. Ward E, Carpenter A, Markowitz S et al. Excess number of bladder cancers in workers exposed to ortho-toluidine and aniline. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(7):501– 06.

68. Gehrmann GH, Foulger JH, Fleming AJ. Occupational tumours of the bladder. Paper presented at Ninth International Congress on Industrial Medicine, 1948. London, 1949.

69. Case RAM (Chester Beatty Research Institute, London). Letter to the Editor (Washington Post). July 30, 1979. Printed in Corporate Criminal Liability Hearing Report for Sessions 1 and 2. U.S. House of Representatives (96th Cong.), Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Crime. 71:101– 03. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.

70. Castleman B. DuPont’s record in business ethics: Another view. Washington Post. July 15, 1979:E4.

71. Spitz S, Maguigan WH, Dobriner K. The carcinogenic action of benzidine. Cancer. 1950;3(5):789–804.

72. Ferber KH, Hill WJ, Cobb DA. An assessment of the effect of improved working conditions on bladder tumor incidence in a benzidine manufacturing facility. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1976;37(1):61–68.

73. Johnson W, Parnes W. Beta-naphthylamine and benzidine: Identification of groups at high risk of bladder cancer. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1979;329:277–84.

74. Scott TS. The incidence of bladder tumours in a dyestuffs factory. Br J Ind Med. 1952;9(2):127–32.

75. Bingham E. Personal communication, April 26, 1988.

76. Zavon M, Hoegg U, Bingham E. Benzidine exposure as a cause of bladder tumors. Arch Environ Health. 1973;27(1):1–7.

77. Mancuso T, El-Attar A. Cohort study of workers exposed to betanaphthylamine and benzidine. J Occup Med. 1967;9:277–85.

78. Fleming A, D’Alonzo C, Zapp J. Modern Occupational Medicine. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 1954.

79. Mason T, Prorock P, Neeld W et al. Screening for bladder cancer at the DuPont Chamber Works: Initial findings. J Occup Med. 1986;28:1011–16.

80. Temkin IS. Industrial Bladder Carcinogenesis. New York: Pergamon, 1963.

81. Stern FB, Murthy LI, Beaumont JJ et al. Notification and risk assessment for bladder cancer of a cohort exposed to aromatic amines. III. Mortality among workers exposed to aromatic amines in the last beta-naphthylamine manufacturing facility in the United States. J Occup Med. 1985;27(7):495–500.

Chapter Three References

1. Carson R. Silent Spring. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1962.

2. Presidential Science Advisory Committee. Use of pesticides [report]. Issued May 15, 1963.

3. Smoking and Health. Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. U.S. Department of Health Education and Welfare: Public Health Service, 1964. Public Health Service publication no. 1103.

4. Selikoff IJ, Churg J, eds. Biological effects of asbestos. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1965;132(1):1–766.

5. The cities: The price of optimism. Time. August 1, 1969:41–44.

6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Press release: DDT ban takes effect. Issued December 31, 1972. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/ddt/01.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

7. EPA. Press release: Government ban on fluorocarbon gases in aerosol products begins October 15. Issued October 15, 1978. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/ozone/01.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

8. EPA. Press release: EPA bans PCB manufacture; phases out uses. Issued April 19, 1979. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/pcbs/01.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

9. EPA. Press release: U.S. sues Hooker Chemical at Niagara Falls, New York. Issued December 20, 1979. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/history/topics/lovecanal/02.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

10. Gibbs LM. Love Canal: The Story Continues. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada and Stony Creek, CT: New Society Publishers, 1998.

11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality and Standards, Air Quality Strategies and Standards Division. National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, Special Studies Edition. 2003. EPA publication no. 454/R-03–005.

12. Davis D, Hanig J. Song of the Canary [film]. 1978.

13. Torkelson TR, Sadek SE, Rowe VK et al. Toxicologic investigations of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. September 1961;3:545–59.

14. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP): Emergency temporary standard; Hearing. Fed. Reg. 1977;42:45535.

15. AFL-CIO. Death on the Job: The Toll of Neglect. A National and State-by-State Profile of Worker Safety and Health in the United States. April 2007.16th ed. Available at: http://www.aflcio.org/issues/safety/memorial/upload/doj_2007.pdf. Accessed in July 2007.

16. OSHA. Hazard communication. Final rule. Fed. Reg. 1983;48:53280.

17. OSHA. Identification, classification, and regulation of toxic substances posing a potential occupational carcinogenic risk. Proposed rule and notice of hearing. Fed. Reg. 1977;42:54148.

18. Industrial Union Department vs. American Petroleum Institute, 44 U.S. 607 (July 2, 1980). Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Reader/docs/IndustUnion.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

19. AFL-CIO vs. OSHA, 965 F.2d 962 ( July 7, 1992).

20. U.S. House of Representatives (91st Cong., 1st sess.). Report on H.R. 13950, Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act. Committee on Education and Labor; 1969. House Report no. 91–563. Available at: http://www.msha.gov/SOLICITOR/COALACT/69hous.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

21. Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act. Public law no. 91–173, 1969.

22. NIOSH Safety and Health Topic: Occupational Respiratory Disease Surveillance. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/surveillance/ORDS/CoalMineHealthSafetyAc.... Accessed in July 2007.

23. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). History of mine safety and health legislation. Available at: http://www.msha.gov/MSHAINFO/MSHAINF2.HTM. Accessed in June 2007.

24. PVC rolls out of jeopardy, into jubilation. Chemical Week. September 15, 1976:34.

25. Torkelson TR, Oyen F, Rowe VK. The toxicity of vinyl chloride as determined by repeated exposure of laboratory animals. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1961;22:354–61.

26. Cook WA, Giever P, Dinman BD et al. Occupational acroosteolysis: Part 2. An industrial hygiene study. Arch Environ Health. 1971;22(1):74–82.

27. Markowitz G, Rosner D. Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.

28. Viola PL. Cancerogenic effect of vinyl chloride. Paper presented at the Tenth International Cancer Congress, Houston, TX, May 22–29, 1970.

29. Viola P, Bigotti A, Caputo A. Oncogenic response of rat skin, lungs, and bones to vinyl chloride. Cancer Res. 1971;31:516–22.

30. Meeting minutes: Manufacturing Chemists Association, vinyl chloride research coordinators. January 30, 1973.

31. Elliott DM (general manager, Production, Solvents and Monomers Group, Imperial Chemical Industries Limited, Mond Division). Letter to Best GE (Manufacturing Chemists Association). October 30, 1972.

32. Siegel AC (Tenneco Chemicals, Inc.). Memorandum to Rozland GI (Tenneco Chemicals, Inc.). Subject: Vinyl chloride technical task group meeting. November 16, 1972.

33. Meeting minutes: Manufacturing Chemists Association, vinyl chloride research coordinators. May 21, 1973. Accessed in December 2007.

34. Kusnetz HL (manager of Industrial Hygiene, Head Office, Shell Oil Co.). Notes on the meeting of the VCM committee. July 17, 1973. Accessed in December 2007.

35. Wheeler RN Jr. (Union Carbide). Memorandum to Carvajal JL, Dernehl CU, Hanks GJ, Lane KS, Steele AB, Zutty NL. Subject: Vinyl chloride research: MCA report to NIOSH. July 19, 1973. Accessed in December 2007.

36. Angiosarcoma of the liver among polyvinyl chloride workers. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1974;23(6):49–50.

37. Maltoni C, Lefemine G. Carcinogenicity bioassays of vinyl chloride: Current results. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1975;246:195–218.

38. OSHA. Press release: News: OSHA investigating Goodrich cancer fatalities. Issued January 24, 1974.

39. OSHA. Transcript: Informal fact-finding hearings on possible hazards of polyvinyl chloride manufacture and use. February 15, 1974. Available at: http://www.chemicalindustryarchives.org/search/pdfs/vinyl/19740215_001_0... (124– 40). Accessed in June 2007.

40. OSHA. Vinyl chloride: proposed standard. Fed. Reg. 1974;39(92):16896.

41. Key MM. Deposition in the United States District Court for the Western District of New York, in the matter of Holly M. Smith v. the Dow Chemical Company; PPG Industries, Inc., and Shell Oil Company v. the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company. CA no. 94-CV-0393 (September 19, 1995).

42. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Recommendations for public affairs program for SPI’s vinyl chloride committee, Phase 1: Preparation for OSHA hearings; June 1974. Accessed in December 2007.

43. Weaver PH. On the horns of the vinyl chloride dilemma. Fortune. October 1974:150.

44. OSHA. Standard for exposure to vinyl chloride. Fed. Reg. 1974;39(194): 35890.

45. The Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. v. OSHA, 509 F.2d 1301 (January 31, 1975).

46. OSHA. Standard for exposure to vinyl chloride; effective date. Fed. Reg. 1975;40(58):13211.

47. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Gauging control technology and regulatory impacts in occupational safety and health: An appraisal of OSHA’s analytic approach. OTA-ENV-635. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Chapter Four References

1. Markowitz G, Rosner D. Deceit and Denial: The Deadly Politics of Industrial Pollution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.

2. Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J et al. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: An international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(7):894–99.

3. Schwartz J. Low-level lead exposure and children’s IQ: A meta-analysis and search for a threshold. Environ Res. 1994;65(1):42–55.

4. Lead-based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act. Public law no. 91–695. January 13, 1971.

5. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Office of Information and Public Affairs. Press release: CPSC announces decision on lead-in-paint issue raised by Congress. Issued December 17, 1976. Available at: http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PREREL/prhtml76/76087.html. Accessed in June 2007.

6. Mishra R. Rhode Island wins lead paint suit. Boston Globe. February 23, 2006.

7. Warren C. Brush with Death: A Social History of Lead Poisoning. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

8. Bent S. Tetraethyl lead fatal to makers. New York Times. June 22, 1925:3.

9. Odd gas kills one, makes four insane. New York Times. October 27, 1924.

10. Sullivan W. Warning is issued on lead poisoning. New York Times. September 12, 1965:71.

11. National Research Council. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

12. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Consumer advisory: What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. March 2004. Report no. EPA-823-F-04– 009.

13. Hamburger T, Miller AC. Mercury emissions rule geared to benefit industry, staffers say. Los Angeles Times. March 16, 2004.

14. Pianin E. Proposed mercury rules bear industry mark: EPA language similar to that in memos from law firm representing utilities. Washington Post. January 31, 2004:A4.

15. Trasande L, Schechter C, Haynes KA et al. Applying cost analyses to drive policy that protects children: Mercury as a case study. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2006;1076:911–23.

16. Patterson C. Contaminated and natural lead environments of man. Arch Environ Health. 1965;11:350.

17. Kimberly JL (executive vice president, Lead Industries Association, Inc.) Letter to board of directors and industry development committee. Subject: Survey on Public Knowledge and Attitudes on Lead. March 7, 1967.

18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Regulation of fuels and fuel additives: Notice of proposed rulemaking. Fed. Reg. 1972;37:3882.

19. Ethyl Corp. v. EPA, 541 F.2d 1 (March 19, 1976).

20. Houk VN (director, Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control, Public Health Service), Testimony before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate (98th Cong., 2d sess.) on S.2609:Airborne Lead Reduction Act of 1984. Senate hearing no. 98–978, June 22, 1984.

21. S.2609. Airborne Lead Reduction Act of 1984. Introduced April 30, 1984, by Sen. Durenberger D (R-MN).

22. Sen. Durenberger D (R-MN). Testimony before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate (98th Cong., 2d sess.) on S. 2609: Airborne Lead Reduction Act of 1984. Senate hearing no. 98–978, June 22, 1984.

23. Needleman HL (director, Behavioral Sciences Division, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh). Testimony before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate (98th Cong., 2d sess.) on S.2609: Airborne Lead Reduction Act of 1984. Senate hearing: 98–978, June 22, 1984.

24. Needleman HL, Gunnoe C, Leviton A et al. Deficits in psychologic and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. NEJM. 1979;300(13):689–95.

25. Cole JF (president, International Lead Zinc Research Organization, Inc.) Testimony before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate (98th Cong., 2d sess.) on S.2609: Airborne Lead Reduction Act of 1984. Senate hearing: 98–978, June 22, 1984.

26. Needleman HL. The removal of lead from gasoline: Historical and personal reflections. Environ Res. 2000;84(1):20–35.

27. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Public law no. 101–549, November 15, 1990.

28. Grosse SD, Matte TD, Schwartz J et al. Economic gains resulting from the reduction in children’s exposure to lead in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110(6):563–69.

 

Chapter Five References

1. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Division of Scientific, Technical, and Environmental Affairs; ca. 1989. Accessed in December 2007.

2. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Division of Scientific, Technical, and Environmental Affairs. Case study: Vinyl chloride and cancer; ca. 1989. Accessed in December 2007.

3. Molina MJ, Rowland FS. Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes:Chlorine atomc-atalyzed [sic] destruction of ozone. Nature. 1974;249:810–12.

4. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Division of Scientific, Technical, and Environmental Affairs. Case study: Fluorocarbons and ozone depletion; ca. 1989. Accessed in December 2007.

5. Egilman DS, Bohme SR. Author reply to Paustenbach DJ. Scientific method questioned. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2006;12(3):290–92.

6. Exponent, Inc. Form 10-K filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission for fiscal year ended December 29, 2006. Available at: http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/851520/000119312507049476/d10k.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

7. Robertson LM. The Expert Witness Scam. Lulu.com, 2006.

8. Exponent, Inc. Announcement of merging of three companies (Failure Analysis Associates, PTI Environmental Services, and Environmental Health Strategies) to Exponent. 1998. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wtt93c00. Accessed in June 2007.

9. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA). California public health goal for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water. March 1999. Available at: http://www.oehha.ca.gov/water/phg/pdf/mtbe_f.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

10. Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue (Methanex Corporation Counsel). Claimant Methanex Corporation’s second amended statement of claim in the matter of Methanex Corp. v U.S. Submitted November 5, 2002. Exhibit E: Evaluation of UST/LUST Status in California and MTBE in Drinking Water. Prepared by Exponent, Inc., 2002. Available at: http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/15035.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

11. Martinson M, Davidson J. Analysis of MTBE groundwater cleanup costs: A report to the American Petroleum Institute. June 2005.

12. Braksiek RJ, Roberts DJ. Amusement park injuries and deaths. Ann Emerg Med. 2002;39(1):65–72.

13. Exponent, Inc. Investigation of amusement park and rollercoaster injury likelihood and severity. [Report] August 9, 2002.

14. Six Flags. Press release: Roller coasters, theme parks extraordinarily safe, according to two comprehensive, scientific studies. 2002.

15. Ginevan ME. Soft drinks and obesity. J Pediatrics. 2004;144(4):555–56.

16. Forshee RA, Storey ML, Ginevan ME. A risk analysis model of the relationship between beverage consumption from school vending machines and risk of adolescent overweight. Risk Analysis. 2005;25(5):1121.

17. Burros M, Warner M. Bottlers agree to a school ban on sweet drinks. New York Times. May 4, 2006.

18. National Research Council. Health implications of perchlorate ingestion. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2005.

19. Kelsh MA, Buffler PA, Daaboul JJ et al. Primary congenital hypothyroidism, newborn thyroid function, and environmental perchlorate exposure among residents of a southern California community. J Occup Environ Med. 2003;45(10):1116–27.

20. Buffler PA, Kelsh MA, Lau EC et al. Thyroid function and perchlorate in drinking water: An evaluation among California newborns, 1998. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114(5):798–804.

21. MacLennan PA, Delzell E, Sathiakumar N et al. Cancer incidence among triazine herbicide manufacturing workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2002;44(11):1048–58.

22. Hessel PA, Kalmes R, Smith TJ, Lau E, Mink PJ, Mandel J. A nested case control study of prostate cancer and atrazine exposure. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46(4):379–85.

23. Li AA, Mink PJ, McIntosh LJ, Teta MJ, Finley B. Evaluation of epidemiologic and animal data associating pesticides with Parkinson’s disease. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47(10):1059–87.

24. Yarborough CM. Chrysotile as a cause of mesothelioma: An assessment based on epidemiology. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2006;36(2):165–87.

25. Hessel PA, Teta MJ, Goodman M, Lau E. Mesothelioma among brake mechanics: An expanded analysis of a case control study. Risk Analysis. 2004;24(3):547–52.

26. Goodman M, Morgan RW, Ray R, Malloy CD, Zhao K. Cancer in asbestos-exposed occupational cohorts: A meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(5):453–65.

27. Huggard J. (Weinberg Group, LLC). Asbestos, tobacco, pharmaceuticals—We’re all next! (PowerPoint presentation). June 18, 2003. Accessed in December 2007.

28. Weinberg Group. The Weinberg Group: Case studies: Analyzed existing studies to find any design flaws to support legal defense. 2001. Accessed in December 2007.

29. Gaffney PT (vice president, Product Defense, the Weinberg Group). Letter to Brooks J (vice president, Special Initiatives, DuPont de Nemours). Re: Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). April 29, 2003. Accessed in December 2007.

30. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Science Advisory Board (SAB) review of EPA’s draft risk assessment of potential human health effects associated with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its salts. May 30, 2006. Report no. EPA-SAB-06–006.

31. Thacker PD. The Weinberg proposal. Environ Sci Technol. February 22, 2006.

32. Hurley D. As ephedra ban nears, a race to sell last supplies. New York Times. April 11, 2004.

33. Levy P, Roth HD, Hwang PMT, Powers TE. Beryllium and lung cancer: A reanalysis of a NIOSH cohort mortality study. Inhalation Toxicology. 2002;14(10):1003–15.

34. Levy PS. Workplace exposures to ETS and lung cancer: Presentation of meta-analysis findings to the NTP Board of Scientific Counselors, Report on Carcinogens Subcommittee, December 1, 1998. Available at:  http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/files/levy-12-01-98.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

35. Philip Morris. H. Daniel Roth, Ph.D. 1985. Philip Morris document no. 2023082974. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hyl52d00. Accessed in June 2007.

36. Brissenden McFarland Wagoner & Fuccella, Inc. Confidential executive summary on H. Daniel Roth, candidate for the position of executive director for the Center of Indoor Air Research (CIAR). Prepared for the Board of Directors of CIAR. September 1987. Tobacco Institute document no. TI0065– 0534. Available at: http://tobaccodocuments.org/nysa_ti_s1/TI00650534.html. Accessed in June 2007.

37. Roth HD (Roth Associates, Inc.). Letter to Hall T (Division of Consumer Affairs, OSHA). Subject: Occupational Safety and Health Association’s [sic] notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of public hearing on indoor air quality, April 5, 1994, 59 Fed. Reg. 15966, and the extension of comment period and rescheduling of public hearing. 59 Fed. Reg. 30560. August 12, 1994. R. J. Reynolds document no. 515918609/8611. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qwc92d00. Accessed in June 2007.

38. Roth HD. A survey of health effects: Mercury emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants [report prepared for North Dakota Industrial Commission]. August 28, 1996. Accessed in December 2007.

39. Roth HD, Viren JR, Colucci AV. Evaluation of CHESS: New York Asthma Data 1970–1971. Vol. 1: Findings and supporting tables. EPRI EA-450 (Research project 681–1). Report prepared for the Electric Power Research Institute. 1977. R.J. Reynolds document no. 501558651/8808. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/lsp39d00. Accessed in December 2007.

40. U.S. Department of Justice. United States’ final proposed findings of fact. Filed July 1, 2004, for U.S. v. Philip Morris (civil action no. 99-CV-02496 [GK]). Available at: http://www.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/litigation/usvpm/uspm.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

41. Roth HD, Levy PS, Shi L, Post E. Alcoholic beverages and breast cancer: Some observations on published case-control studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994;47(2):207–16.

42. Roth HD, Levy PS. Response to MP Longnecker, J Clin Epidemiol. 1995;48(4):497–500.

43. Clapp RW. Industry influence in the dioxin reassessment (PowerPoint presentation), July 12, 2004. Available at: http://www.cspinet.org/integrity/cf/visualclapp.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

44. Paustenbach DJ, Finley BL, Lu ET et al. Environmental and occupational health hazards associated with the presence of asbestos in brake linings and pads (1900 to present): A ‘‘state-of-the-art’’ review. J Toxicol Environ Health Part B. 2004;7(1):25–80.

45. Paustenbach DJ, Richter RO, Finley BL et al. An evaluation of the historical exposures of mechanics to asbestos in brake dust. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2003;18(10):786–804.

46. Paustenbach DJ (vice president, McLaren/Hart; national director, Chem-Risk division). Letter to Project Officer- Environmental Tobacco Smoke, Technical Information Staff, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Subject: Health effects of passive smoking—assessment of lung cancer in adults and respiratory disorders in children. (External review draft). September 27, 1990. Available at: http://ltdlimages.library.ucsf.edu/imagesr/r/s/m/rsm92d00/Srsm92d00.pdf. Accessed in July 2007.

47. Waldman P. Study tied pollutant to cancer; then consultants got hold of it. Wall Street Journal. December 23, 2005:A1.

48. Lane A. Weakened rules a boon to 3 polluters: Work of scientist paid by the firms viewed skeptically by other experts. Newark (NJ) Star Ledger. March 7, 2004.

49. Zhang J, Li X. Chromium pollution of soil and water in Jinzhou. J Chinese Prevent Med. 1987;2(5):262–64.

50. Zhang J, Li S. Cancer mortality in a Chinese population exposed to hexavalent chromium in water. J Occup Environ Med. 1997;39(4):315–19.

51. Environmental Working Group. Chrome-plated fraud: How PG&E’s scientists-for-hire reversed findings of cancer study. 2005. Available at: http://www.ewg.org/reports/chromium/index.php. Accessed in June 2007.

52. Brandt-Rauf P. Editorial retraction. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(7):749.

53. Beaumont J, Sedman R, Reynolds S et al. Analysis of cancer mortality data from five villages in China with hexavalent chromium-contaminated drinking water. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;163(Suppl):S115.

54. Phillips ML. Journal retracts chromium study. Scientist. June 7, 2006.

55. Wall Street Journal accused of wrongdoing on Erin Brockovich story credited as key in $295 million settlement, says Dr. Shukun Li. Businesswire.com. December 6, 2006.

56. Henz KL, Karch KJ, Ginevan ME. Statistical analysis of binned data without access to raw data [abstract for the Society for Risk Analysis annual meeting], 2003. Available at: http://www.birenheide.com/sra/2003AM/program/singlesession.php3?sessid¼T9. Accessed in June 2007.

57. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans: Preamble. January 2006. Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Preamble/CurrentPreamble.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

58. Garne D, Watson M, Chapman S, Byrne F. Environmental tobacco smoke research published in the journal Indoor and Built Environment and associations with the tobacco industry. Lancet. 2005;365(9461):804– 09.

59. Axelson O, Balbus JB, Cohen G et al. Correspondence regarding publication ethics and Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2003;9(4):386–89.

60. Weinberg Group. Terry Quill, Esq. 2005. Accessed in December 2007.

61. Quill TF (Beveridge Diamond). Memorandum prepared by outside legal counsel to the tobacco companies concerning a report on the EPA’s ETS risk assessment providing confidential information to industry counsel to aid in the rendering of legal advice in connection with ongoing regulatory proceedings. RJ Reynolds document no. 517572542 -2542. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/hzo83a00.

62. Packett KT (Tobacco Institute). Memorandum to Gleason M, Stunz S (Tobacco Institute). Analysis of scientific affairs budget for the 1991 calendar year, Appendix A (analysis of expenses incurred for scientific projects). June 24, 1991. Available at: http://tobaccodocuments.org/nysa_ti_m2/TI10011124.html or http://tdo.roswellpark.org/ti/TIDN0018313–8319.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

63. Cole P, Rodu B. Epidemiologic studies of chrome and cancer mortality: A series of meta-analyses. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005;43(3):225–31.

64. Wellmann J, Weiland S, Neiteler G et al. Cancer mortality in German carbon black workers, 1976–1998. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:513–21.

65. Buchte S, Morfeld P, Wellmann J et al. Lung cancer mortality and carbon black exposure: A nested case-control study at a German carbon black production plant. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(12):1242–52.

66. Morfeld P, Buchte SF, Wellmann J et al. Lung cancer mortality and carbon black exposure: Cox regression analysis of a cohort from a German carbon black production plant. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(12):1230–41.

67. Morfeld P, Buchte SF, Wellmann J et al. Lung cancer mortality and carbon black exposure: Uncertainties of SMR analyses in a cohort study at a German carbon black production plant. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(12):1253–64.

68. Conference program: Particles and cancer. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Biological Engineering Division. January 10–11, 2006. Available at: http://web.mit.edu/be/pc-conference/program.html. Accessed in June 2007.

69. Baan R, Straif K, Grosse V et al. Carcinogenicity of carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc. Lancet Oncol. 2006;7(4):295–96.

70. Moynihan DP. Defining deviancy down: How we’ve become accustomed to alarming levels of crime and destructive behavior. American Scholar. 1993;62:17–30.

71. Council on Water Quality. 2007. Available at: http://www.councilonwaterquality.org/. Accessed in June 2007.

72. Environment California. The politics of rocket fuel pollution: Executive summary. December 1, 2006.

73. SourceWatch. Category: Front groups. 2005. Available at: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Category:Front_groups. Accessed in June 2007.

74. Stauber J, Rampton S. Toxic Sludge Is Good for You: Lies, Damn Lies, and the Public Relations Industry. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995.

75. Rampton S, Stauber J. Trust Us, We’re Experts! How Industry Manipulates Science and Gambles with Your Future. New York: Center for Media and Democracy, 2001.

76. SourceWatch. Center for Consumer Freedom. 2006. Available at: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Center_for_Consumer_Freedom. Accessed in June 2007.

77. Center for Consumer Freedom. FishScam.com. Available at: http://www.fishscam.com. Accessed in June 2007.

78. SourceWatch. Foundation for Clear Air Progress. 2006. Available at: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Foundation_for_Clean_Air_Prog.... Accessed in June 2007.

79. Fialka JJ. Panel judging EPA’s proposed air regulations receives most of its funding from the regulated. Wall Street Journal. January 16, 1997:A20.

80. ExxonSecrets.org. Fact Sheet: The Annapolis Center for Science-based Public Policy. 2005. Available at: http://www.exxonsecrets.org/html/orgfactsheet.php?id=13. Accessed in June 2007.

81. Mooney C. Some like it hot. Mother Jones. May/June 2005.

82. Southern Co. Services. Annual report U-13–60, filed with Securities and Exchange Commission for 12/31/03. April 30, 2004. SEC file 49–00059; accession no. 92122– 4-17. Available at: http://www.secinfo.com/d2Puw.151.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

83. Southern Co. Services. Annual report U-13–60, filed with Securities and Exchange Commission for 12/31/04. April 29, 2005. SEC file 49– 00059; accession no. 217216–5-2. Available at: http://www.secinfo.com/d6k4f.zd.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

84. Lipfert FW. The ‘‘Particle Wars’’ and a Path to Peace. Annapolis Center for Science-Based Public Policy, 2003.

85. Edison Electric Institute. Comments submitted to Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2001– 0017 (National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter, proposed rule, 71 Fed. Reg. 2620–708, January 17, 2006). April 17, 2006. Document no. EPA-HQ-OAR-2001– 0017–2193.1.

86. Utility Air Regulatory Group (UARG). Comments submitted to Docket EPA-HQ-OAR-2001– 0017 (National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter, Proposed Rule, 71 Fed. Reg. 2620, January 17, 2006), and EPA-HQ-OAR-2004– 0018 (Revisions to Ambient Air Monitoring Requirements, 71 Fed. Reg. 2710, Jan. 17, 2006). April 17, 2006. Document no. EPA-HQ-OAR-2001–0017–1629.1.

87. Pope III CA. Particulate pollution and health: A review of the Utah valley experience. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1996;6(1):23– 34.

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89. Rom WN, Samet JM. Small particles with big effects. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173(4):365–66.

90. Samet JM, Zeger SL, Dominici F, et al. The National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study. Part 2: Morbidity and mortality from air pollution in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Health Effects Institute: June 2000, no. 94. Available at: http://pubs.healtheffects.org/view.php?id=118. Accessed in June 2007.

91. Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero FC et al. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987–1994. NEJM. 2000;343(24):1742–49.

92. Huber P. W. Galileo’s Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom. New York: Basic Books, 1993:2–3.

93. Junkscience.com. Junk science at large: Junk scientists, 1997. Available at: http://www.junkscience.com/roster. Accessed in November 2007.

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Chapter Six References

1. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 88: Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol. December 2006.

2. Schull WJ. Effects of Atomic Radiation: A Half-Century of Studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1995.

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4. Axelson O. Negative and non-positive epidemiological studies. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2004;17(1):115–21.

5. Ward E, Carpenter A, Markowitz S et al. Excess number of bladder cancers in workers exposed to ortho-toluidine and aniline. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(7):501–6.

6. Angiosarcoma of the liver among polyvinyl chloride workers. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1974;23(6):49–50.

7. Peto R, Gray R, Brantom P et al. Nitrosamine carcinogenesis in 5,120 rodents: Chronic administration of sixteen different concentrations of NDEA, NDMA, NPYR, and NPIP in the water of 4,440 inbred rats, with parallel studies on NDEA alone of the effect of age of starting (3, 6, or 20 weeks) and of species (rats, mice, or hamsters). IARC Sci Publ. 1984;57:627–65.

8. Littlefield NA, Farmer JH, Gaylor DW et al. Effects of dose and time in a long-term, low-dose carcinogenic study. J Environ Pathol Toxicol. 1980;3(3 Spec No.):17–34.

9. Peto R, Gray R, Brantom P et al. Effects on 4,080 rats of chronic ingestion of N-nitrosodiethylamine or N-nitrosodimethylamine: A detailed dose response study. Cancer Res. 1991;51(23 Pt 2):6415–51.

10. Peto R, Gray R, Brantom P et al. Dose and time relationships for tumor induction in the liver and esophagus of 4,080 inbred rats by chronic ingestion of N-nitrosodiethylamine or N-nitrosodimethylamine. Cancer Res. 1991;51(23 Pt 2):6452–69.

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13. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. National Priorities List (NPL). Available at: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/sites/npl/index.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

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15. Hunter FT. Chronic exposure to benzene (benzol). Part 2: The clinical effects. J Ind Hyg Toxicol. 1939;21(8):331–54.

16. Mallory TB, Gall EA, Brickley WJ. Chronic exposure to benzene (benzol). Part 3: The pathologic results. J Ind Hyg Toxicol. 1939;21(8):355–93.

17. Erf LA, Rhoads CP. The hematological effects of benzene (benzol) poisoning. J Ind Hyg Toxicol. 1939;21(8):421–35.

18. Conklin G. Cancer and the environment. Sci Am. 1949;180(1):11–15.

19. Hueper WC. Cancer in its relation to occupation and environment. Bull Am Soc Control Cancer. June 1943;25:63–69.

20. Hueper WC. Environmental cancer [report]. Environmental Cancer Section, Cancer Control Branch, National Cancer Institute; November 1948.

21. Hueper WC. Industrial management and occupational cancer. JAMA. 1946;131:738– 41.

22. Hueper WC. Clinical aspects of occupational cancer. Public Health Rep. 1948:157–65.

23. Hueper WC. Occupational cancer hazards found in industry. Ind Hygiene Newsletter. 1949;9(12):7–9.

24. American Petroleum Institute. API Toxicological Review: Benzene. New York, 1948.

25. Eckardt RE. Recent developments in industrial carcinogens. J Occup Med. November 1973;15(11):904– 07.

26. Infante PF, Rinsky RA, Wagoner JK, et al. Leukaemia in benzene workers. Lancet. 1977;2(8028):76–78.

27. OSHA. Occupational exposure to benzene: Emergency temporary standard. Fed. Reg. 1977;42(85):22516–29.

28. Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute, 44 U.S. 607 (July 2, 1980). Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Reader/docs/IndustUnion.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

29. Rinsky RA, Smith AB, Hornung R et al. Benzene and leukemia: An epidemiologic risk assessment. NEJM. 1987;316(17):1044–50.

30. OSHA. Occupational exposure to benzene: Final rule. Fed. Reg. 1987;52:34460–578.

31. Lamm SH. Heterogeneity of the Akron and St. Mary’s plants. September 1, 1977. Post-hearing comments submitted to OSHA Docket H059, Exhibit no. 217–21-E.

32. McCraw DS, Joyner RE, Cole P. Excess leukemia in a refinery population. J Occup Med. 1985;27(3):220–22.

33. Austin H, Cole P, McCraw DS. A case-control study of leukemia at an oil refinery. J Occup Med. 1986;28(11):1169–73.

34. Honda Y, Delzell E, Cole P. An updated study of mortality among workers at a petroleum manufacturing plant. J Occup Environ Med. 1995;37(2):194–200.

35. Wong O, Morgan RW, Bailey WJ et al. An epidemiological study of petroleum refinery employees. Br J Ind Med. 1986;43(1):6–17.

36. Wong O, Harris F, Rosamilia K et al. An updated mortality study of workers at a petroleum refinery in Beaumont, Texas, 1945 to 1996. J Occup Environ Med. 2001;43(4):384– 401.

37. Wong O, Harris F, Rosamilia K et al. Updated mortality study of workers at a petroleum refinery in Torrance, California, 1959 to 1997. J Occup Environ Med. 2001;43(12):1089–102.

38. Huebner WW, Wojcik NC, Rosamilia K et al. Mortality updates (1970–1997) of two refinery/petrochemical plant cohorts at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and Baytown, Texas. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46(12):1229–45.

39. Raabe GK, Wong O. Leukemia mortality by cell type in petroleum workers with potential exposure to benzene. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104(suppl 6):1381–92.

40. Lamm SH, Walters AS, Wilson R, Byrd DM, Grunwald H. Consistencies and inconsistencies underlying the quantitative assessment of leukemia risk from benzene exposure. Environ Health Perspect. 1989;82:289–97.

41. Paxton MB, Chinchilli VM, Brett SM et al. Leukemia risk associated with benzene exposure in the Pliofilm cohort. Part 1: Mortality update and exposure distribution. Risk Analysis. 1994;14(2):147–54.

42. Paxton MB, Chinchilli VM, Brett SM et al. Leukemia risk associated with benzene exposure in the Pliofilm cohort. Part 2: Risk estimates. Risk Analysis. 1994;14(2):155–61.

43. Paxton MB. Leukemia risk associated with benzene exposure in the Pliofilm cohort. Environ Health Perspect. 1996;104(suppl 6):1431–36.

44. Schnatter AR, Nicolich MJ, Bird MG. Determination of leukemogenic benzene exposure concentrations: Refined analyses of the Pliofilm cohort. Risk Analysis. 1996;16(6):833– 40.

45. van Raalte HGS, Grasso P. Hematological, myelotoxic, clastogenic, carcinogenic, and leukemogenic effects of benzene. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1982;2:153–76.

46. Paustenbach DJ, Price PS, Ollison W et al. Reevaluation of benzene exposure for the Pliofilm (rubberworker) cohort (1936–1976). J Toxicol Environ Health. 1992;36:177–231.

47. Utterback DF, Rinsky RA. Benzene exposure assessment in rubber hydrochloride workers: A critical evaluation of previous estimates. Am J Ind Med. 1995;27(5):661–76.

48. Williams PRD, Paustenbach DJ. Reconstruction of benzene exposure for the Pliofilm cohort (1936–1976) using Monte Carlo techniques. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A. 2003;66(8):677–781.

49. Nilsson RI, Nordlinder R,Horte L-G et al. Leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma in seamen on tankers. Occup Environ Med. 1998;55:517–21.

50. ChemRisk. Contemporary projects of the month: Case involving benzene and the development of AML. July 2005. Available at: http://www.chemrisk.com/archives/july2005.htm. Acessed in October 2007.

51. Williams PRD, Robinson K, Paustenbach DJ. Benzene exposures associated with tasks performed on marine vessels (ca. 1975–2000). J Occup Environ Hygiene. 2005;2:586–99.

52. Hayes RB, Yin SN, Dosemeci M et al. Benzene and the dose-related incidence of hematologic neoplasms in China. Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, National Cancer Institute Benzene Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89(14):1065–71.

53. Lan Q, Zhang L, Li G et al. Hematotoxicity in workers exposed to low levels of benzene. Science. December 3, 2004;306:1774–76.

54. Hurtley S, Szuromi P, eds. This week in Science: A little is still too much. Science. December 3, 2004;306:1647.

55. Hricko A. Rings of controversy around benzene. Environ Health Perspect. 1994;102(3):276.

56. Wong O. A critique of the exposure assessment in the epidemiologic study of benzene-exposed workers in China conducted by the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and the U.S. National Cancer Institute. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1999;30(3):259–367.

57. Budinsky RA, DeMott RP, Wernke MJ et al. An evaluation of modeled benzene exposure and dose estimates published in the Chinese-National Cancer Institute Collaborative Epidemiology Studies. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1999;30:244–58.

58. Wong O. Investigations of benzene exposure, benzene poisoning, and malignancies in China. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002;35(1):126–35.

59. Wong O, Fu H. Exposure to benzene and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: An epidemiologic overview and an ongoing case-control study in Shanghai. Chem Biol Interact. 2005;153–54:33–41.

60. Wang L, Zhou Y, Liang Y et al. Benzene exposure in the shoemaking industry in China: A literature survey, 1978–2004. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;46(2):149–56.

61. Twerdok L, Beatty P. Proposed studies on the risk of benzene-induced diseases in China: Costs and funding. Accessed in December 2007.

62. Benzene Health Research Consortium. The Shanghai Health Study (Power-Point presentation). February 1, 2003. Accessed in December 2007.

63. Parker CM (Marathon Oil). Memorandum to manager of Toxicology and Product Safety (Marathon Oil). Subject: International leveraged research proposal, 2000. Accessed in December 2007.

 

Chapter Seven References

1. Kornegay HR. New directions: A presentation of the Tobacco Institute staff by Horace R. Kornegay, chairman to the Executive Committee. June 25, 1981. Tobacco Institute document no. TIMN0074974/4990. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/gyv92f00. Accessed in June 2007.

2. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Background material on the cigarette industry client. December 15, 1953. R.J. Reynolds document no. 519124023/4027. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ssq31d00. Accessed in June 2007.

3. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Press release: Re: Dr. Clarence Cook Little appointed director of Tobacco Industry Research Committee. Issued June 15, 1954. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/arx49c00. Accessed in June 2007.

4. Diethelm P, McKee M. Lifting the smokescreen: Tobacco industry strategy to defeat smoke free policies and legislation. Brussels: Report prepared for the European Respiratory Society and Institut National du Cancer (INCa, France). February 2006. Available at: http://www.ersnet.org/ers/show/default.aspx?id_attach=13552. Accessed in June 2007.

5. Roper Organization, Inc. A study of public attitudes toward cigarette smoking and the tobacco industry in 1978, vol. 1. Brown and Williamson document no. 501000285/0340; May 1978. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cns10f00. Accessed in June 2007.

6. Hirayama T. Non-smoking wives of heavy smokers have a higher risk of lung cancer: A study from Japan. BMJ (clinical research ed.). 1981;282 (6259):183–85.

7. Tobacco Merchants Association. Tobacco: Its Economic Performance. Part VIII: Government Impact on Consumption: Executive summary. October 28, 1983. Lorillard document no. 93137245/7256. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cbc60e00. Accessed in June 2007.

8. Workplace smoking restrictions: Communications and lobbying support program. February 1984. Brown and Williamson document no. 521046145/6174. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/soc43f00. Accessed in June 2007.

9. Proposal for the organization of the Whitecoat Project. 1988. Philip Morris document no. 2501254705/4708. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/atj32e00. Accessed in June 2007.

10. Boyse S. Note on a special meeting of the UK industry on environmental tobacco smoke, London, February 17, 1988. Philip Morris document no. 2063791176/1180. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dof53a00. Accessed in June 2007.

11. Diethelm PA, Rielle J-C, McKee M. The whole truth and nothing but the truth? The research that Philip Morris did not want you to see. Lancet. 2005;366(9479):86–92.

12. Drope J, Chapman S. Tobacco industry efforts at discrediting scientific knowledge of environmental tobacco smoke: A review of internal industry documents. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55:588–94.

13. Tobacco Institute. Public smoking issue: Consulting scientists on ETS and IAQ. Undated. Tobacco Institute document no. TIDN0003162-TIDN0003164. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dym91f00. Accessed in June 2007.

14. Bero LA, Glantz SA, Rennie D. Publication bias and public health policy on environmental tobacco smoke. JAMA. 1994;272(2):133–36.

15. Schroeder TD (Womble, Carlyle, Sandridge, & Rice). Letter to Gold SM (Magistrate Judge, U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York). Re: Falise et al. v. American Tobacco Co. et al. (CV99–73492) (JBW). February 29, 2000. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/eyl62d00. Accessed in June 2007.

16. Wiggins E, McKenna J. Researchers’ reactions to compelled disclosure of scientific information. Law and Contemporary Problems. 1996;59(3):67–93.

17. R.J. Reynolds Outside Legal Counsel. Smoking and health litigation: Integrated exposure and hazard assessment initiative. Descriptive project proposal and working notes. Draft: January 20, 1987. R.J. Reynolds Document no. 507916450/6480. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ogm95a00. Accessed in June 2007.

18. Colucci AV (R.J. Reynolds). Memorandum to Newton G (R.J. Reynolds). Subject: Planning of strategic analyses. January 2, 1986. R.J. Reynolds Document no. 515838456/8457. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ouj95a00. Accessed in June 2007.

19. Colucci AV (R.J. Reynolds ). Memorandum to Newton G (R.J. Reynolds). Subject: Consultants and witnesses status. February 25, 1985.

20. Life Systems, Inc. Alternate causation: ICAIR. October 21, 1985. R.J. Reynolds Document no. 515872625/2864. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/znj95a00. Accessed in June 2007.

21. Action on Smoking and Health v. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 1991 U.S. App. LEXIS 10487; 15 OSHC (BNA) 1030. Unpublished disposition filed May 10, 1991.

22. OSHA. Occupational exposure to indoor air pollutants: Request for information. Fed. Reg. 1991;56(183):47892–97.

23. OSHA. Indoor air quality: Notice of proposed rulemaking; notice of informal public hearing. Fed. Reg. 1994;59(65):15968–16039.

24. Bryan-Jones K, Bero LA. Tobacco industry efforts to defeat the Occupational Safety and Health Administration indoor air quality rule. Am J Public Health. 2003;93(4):585–92.

25. Philip Morris. Draft, 7/8/94, CAC presentation #4. Philip Morris document no. 2041183751/3790; 1994. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vnf77e00. Accessed in June 2007.

26. Smith C, Vizcaino T (R.J. Reynolds). Memorandum to Simmons S (R.J. Reynolds). Subject: October 28, 1988, meeting with Dr. Neil [H. Daniel] Roth. November 3, 1988. R. J. Reynolds document no. 508234343/4344. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/lvc04d00. Accessed in June 2007.

27. Stern FB, Halperin WE, Hornung RW et al. Heart disease mortality among bridge and tunnel officers exposed to carbon monoxide. Am J Epidemiol. 1988;128(6):1276–88.

28. Roth HD (Roth Associates, Inc.). Letter to Hall T (Division of Consumer Affairs, OSHA). Subject: Occupational Safety and Health Association’s [sic] notice of proposed rulemaking and notice of public hearing on indoor air quality, April 5, 1994, 59 Fed. Reg. 15966, and the extension of comment period and rescheduling of public hearing, June 14, 1994, 59 Fed. Reg. 30560. August 12, 1994. R.J. Reynolds document no. 515918609/8611. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qwc92d00. Accessed in June 2007.

29. Roth HD. Comments submitted to OSHA re: analysis of the ETS lung cancer and heart disease data. August 12, 1994. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/swc92d00. Accessed in June 2007.

30. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Volume 83: Tobacco smoke and involuntary smoking. 2002. Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol83/volume83.pdf. Accessed in July 2007.

31. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2006.

32. Dreyer LP. Wash Tech Conference Call. (Handwritten notes of Philip Morris in-house memorializing meeting between Philip Morris in-house counsel and Philip Morris regulatory consultants regarding proposed OSHA rulemaking.) Philip Morris document no. 2023896207. April 12, 1994. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cfn12a00. Accessed in June 2007.

33. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: Lung cancer and other disorders. December 1992. Available at: http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835. Accessed in June 2007.

34. Philip Morris. Task force review of [Young & Rubicam] ETS materials. January 20, 1994. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cyl24e00. Accessed in June 2007.

35. Philip Morris. ETS media strategy. Philip Morris document no. 2023920090/0101. 1993. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/sav88e00. Accessed in June 2007.

36. Rampton S, Stauber J. Trust Us, We’re Experts! How Industry Manipulates Science and Gambles with Your Future. New York: Center for Media and Democracy, 2001.

37. Roth HD, Viren JR, Colucci AV. Evaluation of CHESS: New York asthma data 1970–1971. Vol. 1: Findings and supporting tables. EPRI EA-450 (Research Project 681–1). Report prepared for Electric Power Research Institute. 1977. R.J. Reynolds document no. 501558651/8808. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/lsp39d00. Accessed in December 2007.

38. Center for Indoor Air Research (CIAR). CIAR presentation; ca. 1995. Philip Morris document no. 2057790853/0866. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wjm42d00. Accessed in June 2007.

39. Ong EK, Glantz SA. Tobacco industry efforts subverting International Agency for Research on Cancer’s second-hand smoke study. Lancet. 2000;355(9211):1253–59.

40. Rupp JP (counsel to the Center for Indoor Air Research). Letter to Sadler P (Imperial Tobacco Limited). Lorillard document no. 87602316/2319. 1993. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nml11e00. Accessed in June 2007.

41. Barnes DE, Bero LA. Industry-funded research and conflict of interest: An analysis of research sponsored by the tobacco industry through the Center for Indoor Air Research. J Health Polit Policy Law. 1996;21(3):515–42.

42. Barnes DE, Bero LA. Why review articles on health effects of passive smoking reach different conclusions. JAMA. 1998;279(19):1566–70.

43. Lee PN. ‘‘Marriage to a smoker’’ may not be a valid marker of exposure in studies relating environmental tobacco smoke to risk of lung cancer in Japanese non-smoking women. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1995;67(5):287–94.

44. Hong M-K, Bero LA. How the tobacco industry responded to an influential study of the health effects of secondhand smoke. BMJ. 2002;325(7377):1413–16.

45. Oldaker III GB (Center for Indoor Air Research). Letter to Rodricks JV (ENVIRON Corp.). Re: agreement between CIAR and ENVIRON re: Hirayama study to be performed by Michael E.Ginevan. July 14, 1988. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/cme04d00. Accessed in June 2007.

46. Ward ME (R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co.). Letter to Rupp J (Covington and Burling). Re: CIAR-sponsored investigation of John Viren’s Hirayama analysis by Michael E. Ginevan, ENVIRON Corp. March 22, 1988. Lorillard document no. 87676622/6623. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/moq21e00. Accessed in June 2007.

47. Viren JR (R.J. Reynolds). Letter to Goold JA (R.J. Reynolds). Status report: June to the present. July 18, 1988. R. J. Reynolds document no. 515788650–8652. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ezj95a00. Accessed in June 2007.

48. Layard MW (Failure Analysis Associates). Letter to Oldecker G (acting director, Indoor Air Quality Institute). December 10, 1987. Tobacco Institute document no. TI01230757. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zle04d00. Accessed in June 2007.

49. Viren JR (R.J. Reynolds). Status report: July 17–29, 1988. R.J. Reynolds document no. 515788653/8655. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dzj95a00. Accessed in June 2007.

50. Viren JR (R.J. Reynolds). Letter to Goold JA. Re: Status report. February 22, 1989.R.J. Reynolds document no. 51578 8665.  Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bzj95a00. Accessed in June 2007.

51. Ong E, Glantz SA. Hirayama’s work has stood the test of time. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(7):938–39.

52. Eriksen MP, LeMaistre CA, Newell GR. Health hazards of passive smoking. Annu Rev Public Health. 1988;9:47–70.

53. Fontham ET, Correa P, WuWilliams A et al. Lung cancer in nonsmoking women: A multicenter case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1991;1(1):35–43.

54. Fontham ETH, Correa P, Chen VW. Passive smoking and lung cancer. J La State Med Soc. 1993;145(4):132–36.

55. Fontham ET, Correa P, Reynolds P et al. Environmental tobacco smoke and lung cancer in nonsmoking women: A multicenter study. JAMA. 1994; 271(22):1752–59.

56. Baba A, Cook DM, McGarity TO et al. Legislating ‘‘sound science’’: The role of the tobacco industry. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S20–S27.

57. Meeting minutes: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Board of Scientific Counselors’ Report on Carcinogens (BSC RoC) subcommittee meeting. December 2–3, 1998.

58. Meeting transcript: National Toxicology Program Board of Scientific Counselors’ Report on Carcinogens subcommittee meeting. December 2–3, 1998. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/epw60d00. Accessed in June 2007.

59. Chemical Manufacturers Association Epidemiology Task Force. Guidelines for good epidemiology practices for occupational and environmental epidemiologic research. 1991. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ifi73e00. Accessed in June 2007.

60. Federal Focus, Inc. Principles for evaluating epidemiologic data in regulatory risk assessment: Developed by an expert panel at a conference in London, England. Philip Morris document no. 2065386542/6612. October 1996. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vwv77d00. Accessed in June 2007.

61. Weiss R. ‘‘Data quality’’ law is nemesis of regulation. Washington Post. August 16, 2004:A1.

62. IARC tools. Philip Morris document no. 2029059645/9652. 1994. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wwd83e00. Accessed in June 2007.

63. Flue-cured Tobacco Cooperative Stabilization Corp. v. EPA, 4 F Supp. 2d 435 (July 17, 1998).

64. McGarity T. On the prospect of ‘‘Daubertizing’’ judicial review of risk assessment. Law and Contemporary Problems. 2003;66(155).

65. Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK. Passive smoking and lung cancer risk: What is the story now? J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90(19):1416–17.

66. Barnoya J, Glantz SA. Cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke: Nearly as large as smoking. Circulation. 2005;111(20):2684–98.

67. Glantz S, Slade J, Bero L et al. The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

68. U.S. House of Representatives (103rd Cong., 2d sess.) Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. Hearing: Regulation of Tobacco Products, Part 3. June 21 and 23, 1994. Serial no. 103–71. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/doj05c00. Accessed in June 2007.

69. Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. Regents of the University of California, Super. Ct. for County of San Francisco, no. 967298 (May 25, 1995).

70. Koop CE. Foreward. In Glantz SA, Slade J, Bero L et al. The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

71. Glantz SA, Barnes DE, Bero L et al. Looking through a keyhole at the tobacco industry: The Brown and Williamson documents. JAMA.
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72. Slade J, Bero LA, Hanauer P et al. Nicotine and addiction: The Brown and Williamson documents. JAMA. 1995;274(3):225–33.

73. Hanauer P, Slade J, Barnes DE et al. Lawyer control of internal scientific research to protect against products liability lawsuits: The Brown and Williamson documents. JAMA. 1995;274(3):234– 40.

74. Bero L, Barnes DE, Hanauer P et al. Lawyer control of the tobacco industry’s external research program: The Brown and Williamson documents. JAMA. 1995;274(3):241–47.

75. Barnes DE, Hanauer P, Slade J et al. Environmental tobacco smoke: The Brown and Williamson documents. JAMA. 1995;274(3):248–53.

76. Graham T. The Brown and Williamson documents: The company’s response. JAMA. 1995;274(3):254–55.

77. Todd JS, Rennie D, McAfee RE et al. The Brown and Williamson Documents: Where do we go from here? JAMA. 1995;274(3):256–58.

78. Kessler D. A Question of Intent: A Great American Battle with a Deadly Industry. New York: Public Affairs, 2001.

79. U.S. Food and Drug Administration v. Brown and Williamson Tobacco Corporation, 529 U.S. 120 (March 21, 2000).

80. Tobacco use among adults: United States, 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2006;55(42):1145– 48.

81. The Health Consequences of Smoking. Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004.

82. World Health Organization, Western Pacific Region. Country profiles for tobacco or health, 2000.

83. Hanai K. A sham anti-smoking program. Japan Times. May 28, 2001.
 

 

Chapter Eight References

1. Public Citizen Health Research Group of the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union. Petition to request a zero tolerance for ten carcinogens through an emergency temporary standard issued under the authority of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. December 29, 1972.

2. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Emergency temporary standard on certain carcinogens. Fed. Reg. 1973;38(85):10929–30.

3. Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers. Association (SOCMA) Benzidine Task Force. Comments on the production and use of benzidine. March 9, 1973.

4. OSHA. Carcinogens. Fed. Reg. 1974;39(20):3756–97.

5. Walker B, Gerber A. Occupational exposure to aromatic amines: Benzidine and benzidine-based dyes. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 1981;58:11–13.

6. U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Special occupational hazard review for benzidine-based dyes. 1980. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 80–109. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/80–109.html. Accessed in June 2007.

7. Ward E, Carpenter A, Markowitz S et al. Excess number of bladder cancers in workers exposed to ortho-toluidine and aniline. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(7):501– 06.

8. Morigami S, Nisimura I. Experimental studies on aniline bladder tumors. GANN. 1940;34:146–47.

9. Strombeck J. Azotoluene bladder tumors in rats. J Path Bact. 1946;58:275–78.

10. Ekman B, Strombeck J. Demonstration of tumorigenic decomposition products of 2,3 azotoluene. Acta Physiol Scand. 1947;14:43–50.

11. Hartwell JL, ed. Survey of Compounds Which Have Been Tested for Carcinogenic Activity. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Public Health
Service publication no. 149, 1951: 88.

12. Foulger JH (director, Medical Research). Letter to Rice RM (executive director, Medical Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Co.). September 15, 1958.

13. Zapp Jr. JA. Deposition in U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas, Dallas Division, in the matter of Dorothy Schiro et al. v. E. I. Du Pont de Nemours. Civil action no. 3–85– 0339-T. Scottsdale, AZ: March 2, 1987: 69–71.

14. Cousett J (Association of British Chemical Manufacturer). Letter to Mates E (National Aniline Division, Allied Chemical and Dye Corporation). Re: A.B.C.M. papilloma research scheme. October 11, 1954. Accessed in December 2007.

15. Ferber KH (superintendent, Tests and Inspection Department, Buffalo Plant, Allied Chemical Corporation). Letter to Rahall VH (safety coordinator, New York Office, Allied Chemical Corporation). Subject: MCA safety data sheet: Toluidine. November 25, 1958. Accessed in December 2007.

16. Manufacturing Chemists Association (MCA). Officers, board of directors, committees, members. September 1961. Accessed in December 2007.

17. Stephenson FG (secretary, General Safety Committee, Manufacturing Chemists Association, Inc.). Letter to Fleming GG, Kelly RE, Ferber KH, Gois HH (Celanese Corporation of America, Monsanto Chemical Company, National Aniline Division–Allied Chemical Corporation, and American Cyanamid Corporation, respectively). Enclosure: Galley proof for proposed chemical safety data sheet on toluidine. February 24, 1961. Accessed in December 2007.

18. Case RA, Pearson JT. Tumours of the urinary bladder in workmen engaged in the manufacture and use of certain dyestuff intermediates in the British chemical industry. Part 2: Further consideration of the role of aniline and of the manufacture of auramine and magenta (fuchsine) as possible causative agents. Br J Ind Med. 1954;11(3):213–16.

19. Scott TS. Carcinogenic and Chronic Toxic Hazards of Aromatic Amines. New York: Elsevier, 1962.

20. Borneff J. Carcinoma of the bladder found in workers employed in tar distilleries. Zentralblatt fur Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz. 1965;15:288–92.

21. Khlebnikova M, Gladkova Y, Kurenko L et al. Problems of labor hygiene and the state of health of workers in the production of o-toluidine. Published and translated to English by the Institute of Idustrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, 1971.

22. Rubino GF, Scansetti G, Piolatto G et al. The carcinogenic effect of aromatic amines: An epidemiological study on the role of o-toluidine and 4,40-methylene bis (2-methylaniline) in inducing bladder cancer in man. Environ Res. 1982;27(2):241–54.

23. Genin VA, Pliss GB, Pylev LN et al. Prevention of occupational bladder tumors in toluidine manufacture. Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1978;7:10–14.

24. Ferber KH (superintendent, Tests and Inspection Department, Buffalo Plant, Allied Chemical Corporation). Memorandum to Daly JF (plant manager, Buffalo plant, Allied Chemical Corporation.) Subject: Biochemical research: Product toxicity ortho toluidine. August 2, 1962.

25. Neeld Jr. WE (director, Medical Division, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.). Chemical cyanosis cases from Ortho-toluidine. August 18, 1975.

26. Homburger F, Friedell G, Weisburger E et al. Carcinogenicity of simple aromatic amine derivatives in mice and rats [abstract]. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1972;22:280–81.

27. Russfield A, Homburger F, Weisburger J et al. Further studies on carcinogenicity of environmental chemicals including simple aromatic amines [abstract]. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1973;25:446–47.

28. U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI). Bioassay of o-toluidine hydrochloride for possible carcinogenicity. National Institutes of Health. 1979. DHEW publication no. (NIH) 79–1709.

29. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 27: Some Aromatic Amines, Anthraquinones and Nitroso Compounds, and Inorganic Fluorides used in Drinking-water and Dental Preparations. April 1982.

30. Hunt NJ (Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine, Central Research Department, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.). Letter to Schultz EF (product manager, Intermediate Sales, Organic Chemicals Department, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.). Subject: Ortho-toluidine carcinogenicity. June 12, 1974.

31. Schultz EF (technical manager, Intermediates Division, Organic Chemicals Department, Dyes and Chemicals Division, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.). Letter to LeCain R (manager, Purchases, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.). January 12, 1977.

32. McKusick BC (assistant director, Haskell Laboratory for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine, Central Research and Development Department, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co.). Letter to Finklea JF (director, NIOSH). January 12, 1977.

33. Freudenthal RI, Stephens E, Anderson DP. Determining the potential of aromatic amines to induce cancer of the urinary bladder. Int J Toxicol. 1999;15:353–59.

34. Freudenthal RI, Anderson DP. Re: Monitoring of aromatic amine exposures in workers at a chemical plant with known bladder cancer excess. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89(10):734; author reply 735–36.

35. Freudenthal RI, Anderson DP. A reexamination of recent publications suggesting o-toluidine may be a human bladder carcinogen. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1995;21:199–202.

36. Tannenbaum SR. Bladder cancer in workers exposed to aniline. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(20):1507; author reply 1507–8.

37. Stephens ER. Re: Monitoring of aromatic amine exposures in workers at a chemical plant with a known bladder cancer excess. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997;89(10):734–35; author reply 735–36.

38. Ferber KH. Examination before trial in the matter of Sullivan v. E. I. Du Pont de Nemours and Co., Inc., in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Texas, Beaumont Division. Transcript prepared by Jack W. Hunt and Associates, Inc., p. 30. October 27, 1989.

39. NIOSH Alert: Request for assistance in preventing bladder cancer from exposure to o-toluidine and aniline. December 1990. Publication no. DHHS (NIOSH) 90–116.

40. DuPont. Material safety data sheet no. DU000271: O-toluidine. Revision date: October 4, 1990.

41. Vogler W. Confidential Du Pont memorandum to be filed, re: AA-9737 [thirty-four-year-old employee with bladder tumor]. July 10, 1990.

42. Weiss RJ. Email to Fayerweather WE and Karns E. October 25, 1991.

43. Murray W. Affidavit concerning 3,30-dichlorobenzidine (May 15, 1973). Submitted to OSHA’s Standards Advisory Committee on Carcinogens, by Morgan DL (Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen, and Hamilton), June 26, 1973.

44. Ouellet-Hellstrom R, Rench JD. Bladder cancer incidence in arylamine workers. J Occup Environ Med. 1996;38(12):1239–47.

45. Schweiger KE. Testimony of the National Association of Manufacturers on the Emergency Temporary Standard for Certain Carcinogens 29-CFR 1910.93C as revised on July 27, 1973, before a Department of Labor Hearing Officer. September 12, 1973. OSHA Docket H-003, Exhibit no. 24.

46. Korbitz B. Affidavit on OSHA’s proposed standard on 4,40-methylenebis (2-chloroaniline). March 10, 1975. Submitted to OSHA Docket OSH-70 on behalf of the Polyurethane Manufacturers Association by Wahl EJ (Michael, Best, and Friedrich).

47. Ward E, Halperin W, Thun M et al. Bladder tumors in two young males occupationally exposed to MBOCA. Am J Ind Med. 1988;14(3):267–72.

48. Ward E, Halperin W, Thun M et al. Screening workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenebis (2-chloroaniline) for bladder cancer by cystoscopy. J Occup Med. 1990;32(9):865–68.

49. Dietrich H, Dietrich B. Ludwig Rehn (1849–1930): Pioneering findings on the aetiology of bladder cancers. World J Urol. 2000;19:151–53.

50. International Labour Organization. Cancer of the bladder among workers in aniline factories. February 1921. Studies and Reports Series F, no. 1.

51. Xue-Yun Y, Ji-Gang C, Yong-Ning H. Studies on the relation between bladder cancer and benzidine or its derived dyes in Shanghai. Br J Ind Med. 1990;47(8):544–52.

52. Bi W, Hayes RB, Feng P et al. Mortality and incidence of bladder cancer in benzidine-exposed workers in China. Am J Ind Med. 1992;21(4):481–89.

53. Samuels SW. The International Context of Carcinogen Regulation: Benzidine. Banbury Report, vol. 9, 497–512. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 1981.

 

Chapter Nine References

1. Public Citizen Health Research Group of the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union. Petition requesting a reduced tolerance for chromium (VI) (hexavalent chromium) through an emergency temporary standard issued under the authority of the Occupational Safety and Health Act. July 19, 1993. Available at: http://dockets.osha.gov/vg001/V026A/01/01/54.PDF. Accessed in June 2007.

2. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium: Final rule. Fed. Reg. 2006;71(39): 10099–10385.

3. U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to chromium (VI). 1975. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 76–129.

4. Nelson S, Vladeck DC for the Public Citizen Litigation Group. Brief of petitioners: Public Citizen Health Research Group, and Paper, Allied-Industrial, Chemical and Energy Workers International Union v. Elaine Chao, Secretary of Labor, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration. February 2002. Available at: http://www.citizen.org/documents/HexchromBrief.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

5. Mancuso TF, Hueper WC. Occupational cancer and other health hazards in a chromate plant: A medical appraisal. Part 1: Lung cancers in chromate workers. Ind Med Surg. 1951;20(8):358–63.

6. Mancuso TF. Consideration of Chromium as an Industrial Carcinogen. Proceedings of the International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 27–31, 1975.

7. Mancuso TF. Chromium as an industrial carcinogen: Part 1. Am J Ind Med. 1997;31(2):129–39.

8. OSHA History, Part 3: Dunlop/Corn Administration, 1975–1977: Reform and professionalization. Available at: http://www.dol.gov/oasam/programs/history/osha13corn.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

9. OSHA. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium: Proposed standards. Fed. Reg. 1976;41(90):18869–71.

10. Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute, 44 U.S. 607 (July 2, 1980). Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Reader/docs/IndustUnion.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

11. Public Citizen Health Research Group v. Chao, 314 F.3d 143 (December 24, 2002). Available at: http://www.citizen.org/documents/hexavalentchromiumopinion.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

12. Occupational Safety and Health Act. Public law no. 91–596, December 29, 1970.

13. Dear JA (assistant secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health). Letter to Wolfe SM (director, Public Citizen’s Health Research Group). March 8, 1994.

14. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 1994;59(79):20602–55.

15. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 1994;59(79):57800.

16. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations. Fed. Reg. 1995;60(88):23536.

17. Dear JA (assistant secretary of Occupational Safety and Health). Letter to Wolfe SM (director, Public Citizen Health Research Group). Re: May 22 letter on behalf of Public Citizen Health Research Group and the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union. June 30, 1995.

18. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 1995;60(228):60246–85.

19. K.S. Crump Division (under contract no. 7–9-F-1– 0066 with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration). Evaluation of epidemiological data and risk assessment for hexavalent chromium. May 1995.

20. Hayes RB, Lilienfeld AM, Snell LM. Mortality in chromium chemical production workers: A prospective study. Int J Epidemiol. 1979;8(4):365–74.

21. Gibb HJ, Lees PSJ, Pinsky PF et al. Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production. Am J Ind Med. 2000;38:115–26.

22. Meeting minutes: Chrome Coalition meeting. November 14, 1995. Accessed in December 2007.

23. Meeting minutes: Chrome Coalition and ad hoc PEL committee, special meeting with ChemRisk. February 13, 1996. Available at http://www.ehjournal.net/content/supplementary/1476-069x-5-5-s2.pdf. Accessed in December 2007.

24. Buczynski MA (OxyChem). Memorandum to Stephenson DB (Oxy-Chem). Subject: Recent activities of the Chrome Coalition OSHA/PEL ad hoc committee, April 4, 1996. Accessed in December 2007.

25. Chrome Coalition. Contract between Collier, Shannon, Rill, & Scott, PLLC, on behalf of the Chrome Coalition, and ChemRisk, a division of the McLaren/Hart Environmental Engineering Corporation. September 10, 1996. Available at http://www.ehjournal.net/content/supplementary/1476-069x-5-5-s3.pdf. Accessed in December 2007.

26. Wittenborn J (Collier Shannon Scott PLC). Email to Barnhart J (Chrome Coalition). Subject: OSHA info request. August 29, 2002. Accessed in December 2007.

27. Chrome Coalition. Meeting summary. September 12, 2002. Available at: http://www.ehjournal.net/content/supplementary/1476-069x-5-5-s4.pdf. Accessed in December 2007.

28. Finley BL, Kerger BD, Dodge DG et al. Assessment of airborne hexavalent chromium in the home following use of contaminated tapwater. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1996;6(2):229–45.

29. Kerger BD, Paustenbach DJ, Corbett GE et al. Absorption and elimination of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in humans following ingestion of a bolus dose in drinking water. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996;141(1):145–58.

30. Kerger BD, Richter RO, Chute SM et al. Refined exposure assessment for ingestion of tapwater contaminated with hexavalent chromium: Consideration of exogenous and endogenous reducing agents. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1996;6(2):163–79.

31. Kuykendall JR, Kerger BD, Jarvi EJ et al. Measurement of DNA-protein cross-links in human leukocytes following acute ingestion of chromium in drinking water. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17(9):1971–77.

32. Mirsalis JC, Hamilton CM, O’Loughlin KG et al. Chromium (VI) at plausible drinking water concentrations is not genotoxic in the in vivo bone marrow micronucleus or liver unscheduled DNA synthesis assays. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1996;28(1):60–63.

33. Paustenbach DJ, Hays SM, Brien BA et al. Observation of steady state in blood and urine following human ingestion of hexavalent chromium in drinking water. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1996;49(5):453–61.

34. Corbett GE, Finley BL, Paustenbach DJ et al. Systemic uptake of chromium in human volunteers following dermal contact with hexavalent chromium (22 mg/l). J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 1997;7(2):179–89.

35. Finley BL, Kerger BD, Katona MW et al. Human ingestion of chromium (VI) in drinking water: Pharmacokinetics following repeated exposure. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997;142(1):151–59.

36. Kerger BD, Finley BL, Corbett GE et al. Ingestion of chromium(VI) in drinking water by human volunteers: Absorption, distribution, and excretion of single and repeated doses. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1997;50(1):67–95.

37. Proctor DM, Fredrick MM, Scott PK et al. The prevalence of chromium allergy in the United States and its implications for setting soil cleanup: A cost-effectiveness case study. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1998;28(1):27–37.

38. Fowler JF Jr., Kauffman CL, Marks Jr. JG et al. An environmental hazard assessment of low-level dermal exposure to hexavalent chromium in solution among chromium-sensitized volunteers. J Occup Environ Med. 1999;41(3):150–60.

39. Proctor DM, Panko JM, Finley BL et al. Need for improved science in standard setting for hexavalent chromium. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1999;29(2 Pt 1):99–101.

40. Proctor DM, Otani JM, Finley BL et al. Is hexavalent chromium carcinogenic via ingestion? A weight-of-evidence review. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A. 2002;65:701–46.

41. Crump C, Crump K, Hack E et al. Dose-response and risk assessment of airborne hexavalent chromium and lung cancer mortality. Risk Analysis. 2003;23(6):1147–63.

42. Luippold RS, Mundt KA, Austin RP et al. Lung cancer mortality among chromate production workers. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60(6):451–57.

43. Paustenbach DJ, Finley BL, Mowat FS et al. Human health risk and exposure assessment of chromium (VI) in tap water. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part A. 2003;66(14):1295–1339.

44. Proctor DM, Panko JP, Liebig EW et al. Workplace airborne hexavalent chromium concentrations for the Painesville, Ohio, chromate production plant (1943–1971). Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2003;18(6):430–49.

45. Proctor DM, Panko JP, Liebig EW et al. Estimating historical occupational exposure to airborne hexavalent chromium in a chromate production plant: 1940–1972. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2004;1:752–67.

46. Tritchler JP, Mundt KA (Applied Epidemiology, Inc.). Epidemiological study of six modern chromate production facilities: A unified strategy for updating mortality experience through 1998: A draft proposal prepared for the Industrial Hygiene Foundation’s Chromium Chemicals Health and Environmental Committee members. March 17, 1997.

47. Applied Epidemiology, Inc. Draft protocol: Collaborative cohort mortality study of five chromate production facilities, 1958–1998. Prepared for the Industrial Health Foundation, Inc. April 23, 1999.

48. Pastides H, Austin R, Lemeshow S et al. A retrospective-cohort study of occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Am J Ind Med. 1994;25:663–75.

49. Matzzie CG, Wolfe SM (staff attorney for Public Citizen Litigation Group and director of Public Citizen Health Research Group, respectively). Letter to Watchman G (acting assistant secretary of Labor for OSHA). March 3, 1997.

50. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 1997;62(80):21934–80.

51. Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers Union v. OSHA, 145 F.3d 120 (filed March 16, 1998).

52. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 1997;62(209):57714–56.

53. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 1997;64(224):64622–71 (see 64628 and 64664–65).

54. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 65(321):74072–124 (see 74110).

55. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. 2001;66(232):61839–86 (see 61846 and 61879–80).

56. Exponent, Inc. Critique of two studies by Gibb et al.: Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production, clinical findings of irritation smong chromium chemical production workers. Prepared for Chrome Coalition, c/o Collier Shannon and Scott, LLP by Exponent, Inc. June 2002. OSHA Docket H054A, Exhibit no. 31–18–14.

57. OSHA. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium: Request for information. Fed. Reg. 2002;67:54389–94.

58. Exponent, Inc. Reanalysis of lung cancer mortality study for workers in the Baltimore chromium production facility. Study sponsored by Elementis Chromium, Engelhard Corporation, Honeywell, Lockheed Martin, and Tierra Solutions, Inc.; November 20, 2002. OSHA docket H054A, Exhibit no. 31–18–15–1.

59. Exponent, Inc. Technical Memorandum: Comments on the OSHA Hexavalent Chromium Rulemaking for the Aerospace Industries Association. Prepared for the Aerospace Industries Association. December 27, 2004. OSHA docket H054A, Exhibit no. 38-215-2.

60. OSHA. Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium; proposed rule, request for comments and scheduling of informal public hearings. Fed. Reg. 2004;69(191):59306–404.

61. Luippold R, Mundt KA, Dell LD et al. Low-level hexavalent chromium exposure and rate of mortality among U.S. chromate production employees. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47(4):381–85.

62. Spraycar M (managing editor, JOEM). Email to Michaels D (George Washington University). Subject: JOEM dates of Luippold study. May 16, 2005.

63. Tampio C (director of Employment Policy, Human Resources Policy at the National Association of Manufacturers). Letter to OSHA Docket Office. Re: Comments to proposed rule on occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. Fed. Reg. October 4, 2004; 69:59305. January 3, 2005. OSHA Docket H054A, Exhibit no. 39–53.

64. Dweck A, Lurie P, Michaels D. Hexavalent chromium study’s conclusions unjustified. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47(10):980–81.

65. Howe SR (senior technical director, Worker Health and Safety, Society of the Plastics Industry). Letter to OSHA Docket Office. Re: Post-hearing brief, proposed rule on occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. 60 Fed. Reg. 59305 (October 4, 2004). April 20, 2005. OSHA docket H054A, Exhibit no. 47–24–1.

66. McMahon-Lohrer K, Nelson K (Collier Shannon Scott, PLLC; counsel for the Specialty Steel Industry of North America). Post-hearing brief. April 20, 2005. OSHA docket H054A, Exhibit 47–27–1.

67. Richter CM, Hannapel JS (The Policy Group). Post-hearing comments of the Surface Finishing Industry Council. April 20, 2005. OSHA docket H054A, Exhibit no. 47–35–1.

68. Barnhart J. Affidavit. December 17, 2004. In re: Industrial Health Foundation, Inc., U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, 2004.

69. Applied Epidemiology, Inc. Collaborative cohort mortality study of four chromate production facilities, 1958–1998: Final report. Prepared for the Industrial Health Foundation, Inc. September 27, 2002.

70. Mundt KA, Luippold R, Dell L. Reply to Dweck, Lurie, and Michaels: Hexavalent chromium study’s conclusions unjustified. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47(10):980–81. J Occup Environ Hygiene. 2005;47(10):981.

71. Mundt K (principal, Environ Health Sciences). Email to Edens M (OSHA). Subject: Occupational hexavalent chromium exposure (with attached manuscript on German cohort mortality study). October 17, 2005. OSHA docket H054A, Exhibit no 48-4-1.

72. Birk T, Mundt KA, Dell LD et al. Lung cancer mortality in the German chromate industry, 1958 to 1998. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(4):426–33.

 

Chapter Ten References

1. U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH Investigation of Gilster Mary Lee. August 22, 2001. HETA no. 2000–0401; interim report.

2. Roberts DW (director, Section for Environmental Public Health, Missouri Department of Health). Letter to Gaines M (OSHA). May 19, 2000.

3. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Inspection report: Jasper Popcorn Company. Health narrative: CSHO workplace findings. May 23, 2000. Report ID no. 0728500, inspection no. 303206387.

4. Freshwater M (senior environmental health engineer, Wausau [Insurance Companies]). Letter to Cook J (Popcorn Plant, Jasper Foods, Inc.). Loss control services report: Environmental Health Engineering Service. May 10, 1996.

5. Fixed obstructive lung disease in workers at a microwave popcorn factory—Missouri, 2000–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002;51(16):345–47.

6. Kreiss K, Gomaa A, Kullman G et al. Clinical bronchiolitis obliterans in workers at a microwave-popcorn plant. NEJM 2002;345(5):330–38.

7. Shipley S. Study showed chemical was toxic. St. Louis Post–Dispatch. February 28, 2004.

8. Hubbs AF, Battelli LA, Goldsmith WT et al. Necrosis of nasal and airway epithelium in rats inhaling vapors of artificial butter flavoring. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2002;185:128–35

9. BASF. Report: Study on the acute inhalation toxicity LC50 of diacetyl FCC as a vapor in rats: 4-hour exposure. Project no. 1310247/927010 (June 8, 1993). Unpublished manuscript. Accessed in December 2007.

10. NIOSH. Important worker health notice about the popcorn plant in Jasper, Missouri (September 9, 2001).

11. Powell AR (Humphrey, Farrington, McClain, and Edgar, P.C.). Letter to Rick Roberts (OSHA Kansas City Area Office). Re: Gilster–Mary Lee Corp. OSHA complaint and request for records. December 19, 2001.

12. OSHA. Complaint/inspection case file activity diary, Kansas City Area Office. Company name: Glister [sic]-Mary Lee Corporation. December 20, 2001. Complaint no. 203783865, inspection no. 304306483.

13. OSHA. Inspection report: Glister [sic]-Mary Lee Corporation. December 20, 2001. Report ID no. 0728500, inspection no. 304306483.

14. Olmedo M (area director, OSHA Kansas City Area Office). Letter to Powell AR (Humphrey, Farrington, McClain, and Edgar, P.C.). February 28, 2002.

15. Occupational Safety and Health Act. Public law no. 91–596, December 29, 1970.

16. Page JA, O’Brien M-W. Bitter Wages: Ralph Nader’s Study Group Report on Disease and Injury on the Job. New York: Grossman, 1973.

17. Moure-Eraso R. Primary prevention and precaution in hazard identification in the NIEHS/NTP: Body in the morgue approach. Public Health Rep. November–December 2002;117:564–73.

18. Industrial Union Department v. American Petroleum Institute, 44 U.S. 607 ( July 2, 1980). Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Reader/docs/IndustUnion.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

19. OSHA. Coke oven emissions: Final standard. Fed. Reg. 1976;41:46742.

20. Michaels D, Ashford NA, Baker D et al. Letter to Chao EL (secretary, U.S. Department of Labor). July 26, 2006.

21. Fixed obstructive lung disease among workers in the flavor-manufacturing industry—California, 2004–2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2007;56(16):389–393.

22. NIOSH alert: Preventing lung disease in workers who use or make flavorings. December 2003. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 2004–110.

23. Schneider A. Disease is swift, response is slow. Baltimore Sun. April 23, 2006.

24. Associated Press. Testimony ends in second trial on claim that popcorn flavoring caused injury. April 30, 2004.

25. OSHA. Chemical sampling information: Diacetyl. 2007. Available at: http://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_231710.html. Accessed in June 2007.

26. Bowman C. Investigative report: Flavoring agent destroys lungs. Sacramento Bee. July 30, 2006.

27. United Food and Commercial Workers International Union, International Brotherhood of Teamsters. Letter to Chao E (OSHA). Subject: Petition for an OSHA emergency temporary standard for diacetyl. July 26, 2006.

28. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association of the United States. Respiratory Health and Safety in the Flavor Manufacturing Workplace. August 2004. Available at: http://www.ifraorg.org/Enclosures/News/RespiratoryRpt.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

29. OSHA. Agreement establishing an alliance between the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor Region VII, and the Popcorn Board. September 22, 2002. Available at: http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/alliances/regional/reg7/popcorn.html. Accessed in June 2007.

30. OSHA. Fact sheet: OSHA Alliance Program. August 2005. Available at: http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/alliances/. Accessed in June 2007.

31. OSHA. The Alliance Program. Power Point Presentation. Available at: http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/alliances/presentations/alliance_final/index.html. Accessed in July 2007.

32. OSHA. Press release: OSHA signs alliance with the International Society of Canine Cosmetologists. Issued 2005.

33. Adkins CE (regional administrator, OSHA). Letter to Michaels D (George Washington University). Re: FOIA request. June 4, 2004.

34. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and Labor, Subcommittee on Workforce Protections. Hearing: Have OSHA standards kept up with workplace hazards? April 24, 2007. Available at: http://edlabor.house.gov/hearings/wp042407.shtml. Accessed in June 2007.

35. U.S. Senate, Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, Subcommittee on Employment and Workplace Safety. Hearing: Is OSHA working for working people? April 26, 2007. Available at: http://help.senate.gov/Hearings/2007_04_26/2007_04_26.html. Accessed in June 2007.

36. Foulke Jr. EG (assistant secretary, OSHA). Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Workforce Protections. April 24, 2007. Available at: http://edlabor.house.gov/testimony/042407EdwinFoulketestimony.pdf. Accessed in July 2007.

37. Van Rooy GBGJ, Rooyackers JM, Prokop M et al. Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavorings. Am J Respir Crit Care. 2007;176:498–504.

38. Ettlinger S. Twinkie, Deconstructed. New York: Hudson Street Press, 2007.

39. H.R. 2693. Popcorn Workers Lung Disease Prevention Act. Introduced June 13, 2007, by Rep. Woolsey L (D-CA-6). Accessed in June 2007.

40. Foulke Jr. EG (assistant secretary, OSHA). Letter to Rep. Miller G (Chairman, U.S. House Committee on Education and Labor). June 19, 2007. Accessed in June 2007.

41. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association of the United States. Press Release: The Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association of the United States supports H.R. 2693, legislation to ensure workplace safety in flavor manufacturing. Issued June 13, 2007. Available at: http://www.femaflavor.org/downloads/PressReleases/FEMA_Statement_Diacety.... Accessed in June 2007.

42. Rep. McKeon HP (R-CA-25). Opening statement before the Committee on Education and Labor Markup of H.R. 2693, the Popcorn Workers Lung Disease Prevention Act. Available at: http://republicans.edlabor.house.gov/PRArticle.aspx?NewsID=185&IID=16. Accessed in June 2007.

43. U.S. House Committee on Education and Labor. Press Release: House Labor Committee passes legislation to protect food flavoring workers from severe lung disease. Issued June 20, 2007. Available at: http://www.house.gov/apps/list/speech/edlabor_dem/rel062007b.html. Accessed in June 2007.

44. Roberts JD, Galbraith DA, Finley BL (ChemRisk, Inc.). A comprehensive review of occupational exposure to diacetyl in microwave popcorn facilities. Poster presented at Society of Toxicology Meeting, 2007. Accessed in June 2007.

45. Kanwal R, Kullman G, Piacitelli C et al. Evaluation of flavorings-related lung disease risk at six microwave popcorn plants. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(2):149–57.

46. Montealegre J (Vice president for R & D, ConAgra Foods, Inc.) Email to Rosati J. September 9, 2003. Accessed in June 2007.

47. Verduin P (Senior Vice President, Product Quality and Development, ConAgra Foods, Inc.). Letter to Gilman G (Assistant Administrator for the Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). November 29, 2004. Accessed in June 2007.

48. Eaton S. Ohio popcorn plant workers say flavoring hurts lungs. (Cleveland) Plain Dealer. December 3, 2006: A1.

49. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Overview of the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. February 2001. Available at: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/cfsan4.html. Accessed in June 2007.

50. Life Sciences Research Office of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (under contract no. FDA 223–75–2004 to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Evaluation of the health aspects of starter distillate and diacetyl as food ingredients. 1980.

51. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Starter distillate and diacetyl; proposed GRAS status as direct human food ingredients: Proposed rule. Fed. Reg. 1982;47(152):34155–58.

52. Michaels D (director, Project on Scientific Knowledge and Public Policy [SKAPP], George Washington University). Letter to von Eschenbach AC (acting commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Re: Petition to urge the FDA’s prompt action to cancel the GRAS designation for diacetyl. September 8, 2006. FDA docket 2006P-0379. Available at: Accessed in June 2007.

53. Rep. DeLauro RL (D-CT-3). Letter to von Eschenbach AC (commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration). May 7, 2007. Available at: http://www.house.gov/delauro/press/2007/May/Diacetyl_FDA_05_07_07.html. Accessed in June 2007.

54. von Eschenbach AC (commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration). Letter to DeLauro RL (D-CT-3). June 12, 2007. Accessed in June 2007.

55. Michaels D. Popcorn lung coming to your kitchen? The FDA doesn’t want you to know. The Pump Handle Blog. September 4, 2007.

56. Harris G. Doctor links a man’s illness to a microwave popcorn habit. New York Times. September 5, 2007.

57. Rose C (acting head, Division of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences National Jewish Medical and Research Center). Letter to Landa M, (deputy commissioner for Regulatory Affairs, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration). July 18, 2007. Accessed in September 2007.

58. Pop Weaver Popcorn Company. Press Release: Pop Weaver introduces first microwave popcorn with flavoring containing no diacetyl. Issued August 28, 2007. Available at: http://www.popweaver.com/NoDiacetylPressRelease.pdf. Accessed in September 2007.

59. Funk J. Popcorn makers work to remove chemical. Associated Press. September 5, 2007.

60. Swoboda F. U.S. acts to reduce repetitive motion injuries; Labor department’s voluntary workplace standards to be basis for mandatory rules. Washington Post. August 31, 1990: A4.

61. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Highest incidence rates and number of disorders with repeated trauma, private industry, 2001. Table S10. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/ostb1120.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

62. OSHA. Advanced notice of proposed rulemaking on ergonomics safety and health management. Fed. Reg. 1992;57:34192.

63. National Research Council. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A review of the evidence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1998.

64. OSHA. Ergonomics Program, Part 2: Proposed rule, request for comments; scheduling of informal public hearing. Fed. Reg. 1999;64(225):65768.

65. Ivins M, Dubose L. Bushwacked: Life in George W. Bush’s America. New York: Random House, 2003.

66. Cato Institute. Press release: Labor expert: OSHA’s ergonomics regulations based on junk science. Issued May 15, 2000. Available at: http://www.cato.org/new/05– 00/05–15– 00r.html. Accessed in June 2007.

67. Scalia E. OSHA’S ergonomics litigation record: Three strikes and it’s out. Cato Policy Analysis. May 15, 2000. Available at: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa-370es.html. Accessed in June 2007.

68. National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace: Low Back and Upper Extremities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

69. OSHA. Ergonomics Program: Final rule. Fed. Reg. 2000;65(220):68262.

70. Joint Resolution of Senate and House of Representatives to disapprove of OSHA’s final rule on ergonomics. Public law no. 107–5, March 20, 2001.

71. OSHA. Press release: OSHA issues final rule on recordkeeping form. Issued June 30, 2003.

72. Barab J. Egonomics injuries: Now you see ’em, now you don’t. Confined Space Blog. July 1, 2003.

 

Chapter Eleven References

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3. Eisenbud M, Wanta RC, Dustan C et al. Non-occupational berylliosis. J Ind Hyg Toxicol. 1949;31:282.

4. Tumbleson R (U.S. Atomic Energy Commission Public/Technical Information Service). Public relations problems in connection with occupational diseases in the beryllium industry. 1947.

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9. Stokinger HE. Recommended hygienic limits of exposure to beryllium. In: Stokinger HE, ed. Beryllium: Its Industrial Hygiene Aspects. New York: Academic Press, 1966:235–244.

10. Kohara T (director and general manager, Personnel Department, NGK Insulators, Ltd.). Letter to Piper HG (Vice President, Brush Wellman, Inc.). August 9, 1974.

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13. Machle W. A further program. In: Vorwald AJ, ed. Pneumoconiosis: Beryllium, Bauxite Fumes, Compensation. New York: Hoeber, 1950:447–51.

14. Saranac Laboratory. Proposal on the co-carcinogenic potentialities of inhaled tobacco smoke in relation to beryllium-provoked lung cancer of the rat. Submitted to the Tobacco Industry Research Committee, October 1, 1954.

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21. Finklea JF (director, NIOSH). Memorandum to assistant secretary for Occupational Safety and Health. Subject: Update of NIOSH criteria document on beryllium, December 10, 1975.

22. U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Beryllium: Proposed occupational safety and health standard. Fed. Reg. 1975;40(202): 48814–27.

23. Baier EJ (NIOSH). Statement at OSHA’s public hearing on the occupational standard for beryllium. August 19, 1977.

24. Brush Wellman. Briefing outline on OSHA. October 6, 1977. Bates no. BF009662-BF009677.

25. Newman JM Jr. (Jones, Day, Reavis, and Pogue on behalf of Brush Wellman, Inc.). Letter to OSHA Docket Office. Re: Public hearing on proposed beryllium standard. July 13, 1977.

26. Steenland K, Ward E. Lung cancer incidence among patients with beryllium disease: A cohort mortality study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(19):1380–85.

27. Ward E, Okun A, Ruder A et al. A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants. Am J Ind Med. 1992;22(6):885–904.

28. Sanderson WT, Ward EM, Steenland K et al. Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers. Am J Ind Med. 2001;39(2):133–44.

29. McCarten P. Letter to Administrative Law Judge Lesser P, submitted by Jones, Day, Reavis, and Pogue (Counsel for Brush Wellman, Inc.), November 17, 1977. Document no. CDC 00027, 1977.

30. Roth HD. OSHA beryllium hearings: Analysis of epidemiological data; ca.1978. Document no. D087051.

31. MacMahon B, Roth N. An evaluation of Wagoner JK, Bayliss DL, Infante PF: Beryllium: An etiologic agent in the induction of lung cancer, nonneoplastic respiratory disease and heart disease among industrially exposed workers. Manuscript, May 23, 1978.

32. Powers MB. Statement of Brush Wellman, Inc., at the public hearings on OSHA’s proposed beryllium standard, 1977.

33. Eisenbud M, Goldwater LJ, Higgins I et al. Letter to Califano JA, Marshall R (secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and secretary of Labor, respectively). February 10, 1978. Bates no. ME007469 or TW103006.

34. Odorich J, Schwartz AE, Wright MJ (vice president; director, Safety and Health Department; and industrial hygienist, Safety and Health Deparment; respectively, of the United Steelworkers of America). Letter to Califano JA, Marshall R (secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare and secretary of Labor, respectively). March 20, 1978.

35. Califano J Jr. (secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare). Letter to Sen. Eagleton TF (D-MO). August 21, 1978.

36. Shy CM (professor of Epidemiology and director, Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Northa Carolina–Chapel Hill). Letter to Foege WH (director, Center [sic] for Disease Control). October 12, 1978. Document no. 1011291.

37. Alsop R. Beryllium firm optimistic on fight to keep metal off carcinogen list. Wall Street Journal. March 7, 1978.

38. Schlesinger JR (secretary of Energy). Letter to Marshall RF (secretary of Labor). August 30, 1978.

39. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monograph on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 23: Some Metals and Metallic Compounds. July 1980.

40. National Toxicology Program. Second annual report on carcinogens. 1981.

41. Preuss OP. Long-term follow-up of workers exposed to beryllium. Brit J Industr Med. 1985;42:69.

42. Roth HD. Memorandum to Brush Wellman enclosing a critique of the EPA health assessment document for beryllium. February 22, 1985.

43. Roth HD. Evaluation of beryllium epidemiological data, prepared for beryllium industry. August 1987.

44. Roth N (Roth Associates, Inc.). Memorandum to Davis D, Markham T, Miller J, Newman J, Wolfe D (Brush Wellman, Inc.). Subject: NIOSH Meeting (March 31, 1988). April 13, 1988.

45. Powers MB, Preuss OP. Memorandum to Gulick JE. Subject: Proposed program of filling need for new and accurate beryllium health and safety literature. January 23, 1987. Accessed in December 2007.

46. Rossman MD, Preuss OP, Powers MB, eds. Beryllium: Biomedical and Environmental Aspects. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1991.

47. Hill and Knowlton, Inc. Letter to Gulick JE (vice president, Planning and Administration, Brush Wellman). February 21, 1989. Accessed in December 2007.

48. Swetonic M (Hill and Knowlton, Inc.) Memorandum to Allen P (RJR Nabisco). Subject: Hill and Knowlton ETS Assignment. July 23, 1987. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jid03d00. Accessed in July 2007.

49. Public Relations Plan: Liability Litigation. 1985. R.J. Reynolds document no. 505439316/9330. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/mgw15d00. Accessed in July 2007.

50. Asebstos Textile Institute. General meeting minutes, June 7, 1973. Addendum: About the speaker: Matthew M. Swetonic.

51. Brush Wellman. Introduction; ca. 1993. Bates no. BF0010985-BF0010987. Accessed in December 2007.

52. Harnett GD (president, chief executive officer, Brush Wellman, Inc.). Letter to Millar JD (director, NIOSH). Re: A mortality study of workers at seven beryllium processing plants. Elizabeth Ward, PhD, and Andrea Okun, MS. July 18, 1991.

53. Saracci R. Beryllium and lung cancer: Adding another piece to the puzzle of epidemiologic evidence. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1991;83(19):1362–63.

54. Levy P, Roth HD, Hwang PMT et al. Beryllium and lung cancer: A reanalysis of a NIOSH cohort mortality study. Inhal Toxicol. 2002;14(10):1003–15.

55. Niwa Y (vice president, NGK Metals Corp.) Letter to Ratney R (chair, Committee on Dusts and Inorganic Substances, ACGIH). Re: Brush Wellman, Inc., and NGK Metal Corporation submission of information relevant to ACGIH guidelines for occupational beryllium exposure. July 9, 1993.

56. Hanes HD (vice president of Government Affairs, Brush Wellman, Inc.). Letter to Bruce RM (chemical manager, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Re: IRIS pilot draft toxicological review of beryllium compounds. April 15, 1997.

57. Kolanz M, Roth HD. Supplemental comments of Brush Wellman, Inc., on the National Toxicology Board of Scientific Counselors January 20, 2000 review and recommendation regarding the appropriate classification of beryllium and beryllium compounds. June 5, 2000.

58. Trichopoulos D (Harvard School of Public Health). Letter to Jameson CW (National Toxicology Program). On the alleged human carcinogenicity of beryllium. June 1, 1999.

59. Kolanz M (director of Environment and Safety, Brush Wellman). Letter to Jameson CW (National Toxicology Program). June 1, 1999.

60. Jameson CW (NIEHS). Letter to Rep. Strickland T (D-OH-6). Re: NTP’s review of beryllium for the report on carcinogens. August 2003.

61. Hanes H. Memorandum to Rozek B. Subject: Activity report, environmental and government affairs. July 23, 1992.

62. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 58: Beryllium, Cadmium, Mercury, and Exposures in the Glass Manufacturing Industry. 1993.

63. Egilman D, Bagley S, Connolly S. Anything but beryllium: The beryllium industry’s corruption of safety information. Am J Ind Med. 2002;42(3):270–71.

64. Egilman DS, Bagley S, Biklen M et al. The beryllium ‘‘double standard’’ standard. Int J Health Serv. 2003;33(4):769–812.

65. Hanes HD (vice president of Government Affairs, Brush Wellman, Inc.). Memorandum to Eisenbud M, Kotin P, MacMahon B, Markham T, Powers M, Trichopoulos D, Stonehouse J, and Valiquette J. Subject: What was unique about the processing of beryllium materials in the Brush-Lorain plant? January 31, 1994.

66. Stonehouse AJ (consultant). Letter to Hanes H (vice president of Governmental Affairs, Brush Wellman). Subject: Brief study of preparations at the Lorain plant of the Brush Beryllium Co. relative to unique health and safety issues. January 19, 1994.

67. Hanes HD (vice president of Governmental Affairs, Brush Wellman). Letter to Trichopoulos D (chairman and professor, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health). Re: Lorain plant paper. April 18, 1995.

68. Beryllium Industry Scientific Advisory Committee (BISAC). Draft minutes of meeting of the Beryllium Industry Scientific Advisory Committee, October 9–10, 1995.

69. BISAC. Is beryllium carcinogenic in humans? J Occup Environ Med. 1997;39(3):205– 08.

70. Cruzan G (ToxWorks). Facsimile to Hanes H (Brush Wellman). Subject: Recent articles of relevance to beryllium. June 13, 1997.

71. Sathiakumar N, Delzell E, Amoateng-Adjepong Y et al. Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between mists containing sulfuric acid and respiratory tract cancer. Crit Rev Toxicol. 1997;27(3):223–51.

72. Fehner TR, Gosling FG. Coming in from the cold: Regulating U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities, 1942–1996. Environ Hist. 1996;1(2):5–33.

73. Hanes HD (vice president of Environmental and Legislative Affairs, Brush Wellman). Letter to Weitzman DJ (director, Industrial Hygiene Programs Division, EH-412, Office of Health Physics and Industrial Hygiene, U.S. Department of Energy). January 10, 1992.

74. Hanes HD (vice president of Environmental and Legislative Affairs, Brush Wellman). Memorandum to Brophy J, Harnett G, Skoch D, Craig Harlan, Sandor A, Waite C. Subject: Beryllium supply to the government. March 12, 1992.

75. Kolanz M. Testimony at the Department of Energy’s beryllium public forum in Albuquerque, NM. January 15, 1997.

76. Paustenbach DJ, Madl AK, Greene JF. Identifying an appropriate occupational exposure limit (OEL) for beryllium: Data gaps and current research initiatives. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2001;16(5):527–38.

77. Egilman D, Bohme SR. TLVs, threshold limit values: Should we trust them? NECOEM Reporter. 2003;2(7):1,4–5.

78. Kolanz M. Testimony at the Department of Energy Public hearing on the proposed Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program. February 11, 1999.

79. Jeffress CN (assistant secretary, OSHA, to Peter Brush). Letter to Brush P (acting assistant secretary, Environment, Safety, and Health, U.S. Department of Energy). August 27, 1998.

80. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. November 30, 2000;65(321):74072–124 (see 74110).

81. OSHA. DOL semiannual agenda of regulations (Part 12). Fed. Reg. December 3, 2001;66(232):61839–86 (see 61846 and 61879–80).

82. Cummings KJ, Deubner DC, Day GA et al. Enhanced preventive programme at a beryllium oxide ceramics facility reduces beryllium sensitisation among new workers. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:134– 40.

83. Day GA, Dufresne A, Stefaniak AB et al. Exposure pathway assessment at a copper-beryllium alloy facility. Ann Occup Hyg. 2007;51(1):67–80.

84. Stanton ML, Henneberger PK, Kent MS et al. Sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in copper-beryllium distribution centers. J Occup Environ Med. 2006;48(2):204–11.

85. Schuler CR, Kent MS, Deubner DC et al. Process-related risk of beryllium sensitization and disease in a copper-beryllium alloy facility. Am J Ind Med. 2005;47(3):195–205.

86. Henneberger PK, Cumro D, Deubner DD et al. Beryllium sensitization and disease among long-term and short-term workers in a beryllium ceramics plant. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2001;74(3):167–76.

87. Rosenman K, Hertzberg V, Rice C et al. Chronic Beryllium Disease and sensitization at a beryllium processing facility. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113(10):1366–72.

88. Madl AK, Unice K, Brown JL et al. Exposure-response analysis for beryllium sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in a beryllium metal machining plant. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2007;4(6):448–66.

89. BISAC. Minutes of meeting, November 2–3, 1994.

90. BISAC. Minutes of meeting, April 23, 1996.

91. BISAC. Minutes of meeting, October 1, 1998.

92. BISAC. Minutes of meeting, November 11–12, 1999.

93. Kolanz M (Brush Wellman). Letter to Sanderson W (NIOSH). January 31, 2000.

94. Deubner DC, Lockey JL, Kotin P et al. Re: Lung cancer case-control study of beryllium workers. Sanderson WT, Ward EM, Steenland K, Petersen MR. Am J Ind Med. 2001;39:133–44. Am J Ind Med. 2001;40(3):284–85.

95. OSHA. Occupational exposure to beryllium: Request for information. Fed. Reg. 2002;67(228):70707.

96. National Toxicology Program. Tenth annual report on carcinogens. 2002.

97. Robin J-P. Beryllium health surveillance: The Quebec experience in the copper recycling industry (PowerPoint presentation on behalf of Noranda Inc./Falconbridge Ltd., at the International Beryllium Research Conference; March 8, 2005). Available at: http://irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/divers/Beryllium_ppt/SESSION2/2-Jean-.... Accessed in June 2007.

98. Brush Wellman, Inc. Supplementary documentation of Brush Wellman briefing outline on OSHA. October 11, 1977. Bates no. BF009665–77.

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100. Turcic P. Personal communication, October 30, 2006.

101. H.R. 1758: Reform of Energy Workers Compensation Act, Section 202: Coverage for lung cancer in covered beryllium employees. Introduced April 10, 2003, by Rep. Strickland T. (D-OH-6).

102. Schumacher RP (Brush Wellman). Letter to to Dallafior M (Office of Rep. Strickland T (D-OH-6). Re: Levy/Roth paper. June 2003.

103. Schoeters I (Eurometaux). Letter to Fassold E (European Chemicals Bureau). Re: Agenda point 8.1: Comments on new proposals from Norway (ECBI/09/95, Add. 20). April 7, 2000.
 

 

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56. Gale EA. Lessons from the glitazones: A story of drug development. Lancet. 2001;357(9271):1870–75.

57. Pope C, Rauber P. Strategic Ignorance: Why the Bush Administration Is Recklessly Destroying a Century of Environmental Progress. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2004.

58. Willman D. The new FDA: Case study: Rezulin. Los Angeles Times. December 20, 2000. Available at: http://www.pulitzer.org/year/2001/investigativereporting/works/rezulin.html. Accessed in June 2007.

59. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee. Transcript: Meeting on safety issues of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in over-the-counter drug products. October 19, 2000. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/ac/00/transcripts/3647t1.doc. Accessed in June 2007.

60. Horwitz RI, Brass LM, Kernan WN et al. Phenylpropanolamine and risk of hemorrhagic stroke: Final report of the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project. May 10, 2000.

61. Kernan WN, Viscoli CM, Brass LM et al. Phenylpropanolamine and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. NEJM. 2000;343(25):1826–32.

62. Kirton W (Bayer US). Email to Glass T, Hammes C, Kosio R, Dex T, Shook C, Schumm R. Subject: CHPA Yale study meeting, 1/21/99. 2000. Available at: http://www.latimes.com/media/acrobat/2004–03/11953872.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

63. Mundy A, Sack K. A dose of denial: How drug makers sought to keep popular cold and diet remedies on store shelves after their own study. Los Angeles Times. March 28, 2004.

64. Michaels D. Doubt is their product. Sci Am. 2005;292(6):96–101.

65. Giles J. Drug trials: Stacking the deck. Nature Medicine. 2006;440(7082):270–72.

66. Stone MB, Jones ML. Clinical review: Relationship between antidepressant drugs and suicidality in adults. November 17, 2006. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/AC/06/briefing/2006-4272b1-01-FDA.pdf. Accessed in October 2007.

67. Levenson M, Holland C (Statistical reviewers, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Translational Science, Office of Biostatistics). Statistical evaluation of suicidality in adults treated with antidepressants. November 17, 2006. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/OHRMS/DOCKETS/AC/06/briefing/2006-4272b1-01-FDA.pdf. Accessed in October 2007.

68. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Public health advisory: Suicidality in children and adolescents being treated with antidepressant medications. Issued October 15, 2004. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/antidepressants/SSRIPHA200410.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

69. Saldanha C. Daubert and suicide risk of antidepressants in children. J Am Acad Psych Law. 2005;33(1):123–25.

70. Josefson D. Jury finds drug 80% responsible for killings. BMJ. 2001;322(7300):1446.

71. Cato J. U.S. Jury finds that antidepressant did not cause boy to kill his grandparents. BMJ. 2005;330(7489):438.

72. Chan A, Hrobjartsson A, Haahr MT et al. Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: comparison of protocols to published articles. JAMA. 2004;291(20):2457–65.

73. American Medical Association. Press release: AMA recommends that DHHS establish a registry for all U.S. clinical trials. Issued June 15, 2004.

74. DeAngelis CD, Drazen JM, Frizelle F et al. Is this clinical trial fully registered? A statement from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. NEJM. 2005;352(23):2436–38.

75. Drazen JM, Wood AJ. Trial registration report card. NEJM. 2005;353(26):2809–11.

76. Zarin DA, Tse T, Ide NC. Trial registration at ClinicalTrials.gov between May and October 2005. NEJM. 2005;353(26):2779–87.

77. Chalmers I. From optimism to disillusion about commitment to transparency in the medico-industrial complex. J R Soc Med. 2006;99(7):337–41.

78. Rennie D. Thyroid storm. JAMA. 1997;277(15):1238–43.

79. Kahn JO, Cherng DW, Mayer K et al. Evaluation of HIV-1 immunogen, an immunologic modifier, administered to patients infected with HIV having 300 to 549 x 10(6)/L CD4 cell counts: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2000;284(17):2193–2202.

80. Blumenthal D, Campbell EG, Anderson MS et al. Withholding research results in academic life science: Evidence from a national survey of faculty. JAMA. 1997;277(15):1224–28.

81. Davidoff F, DeAngelis CD, Drazen JM et al. Sponsorship, authorship, and accountability. NEJM. 2001;345(11):825–26; discussion 826–27.

82. Brownlee S. Doctors without borders: Why you can’t trust medical journals anymore. Washington Monthly. April 2004.

83. Jones PB, Barnes TR, Davies L et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect on quality of life of second- vs first-generation antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenia: Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study (CUtLASS 1). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(10):1079–87.

84. Rosenheck RA. Outcomes, costs, and policy caution. A commentary on the Cost Utility of the Latest Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia Study (CUtLASS 1). Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006;63(10):1074–76.

85. Lurie P. Selling new drugs using smoke and mirrors. Worst Pills, Best Pills News. March 2003:18–70.

86. Meier B. Results of drug trials can mystify doctors through omission. New York Times. July 21, 2004:C1.

87. Harris G. FDA official admits ‘‘lapses’’ on Vioxx. New York Times. March 2, 2005:A15.

 

Chapter Thirteen References

1. Annas GJ. Scientific evidence in the courtroom: The death of the Frye rule. NEJM. 1994;330(14):1018–21

2. Frye v. United States, 293 F 1013 (December 3, 1923).

3. Daubert v.Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 113 S.Ct. 2786 (June 28, 1993).

4. Fed. Rule Evid. 702. Available at: http://www.law.cornell.edu/rules/fre/rules.htm#Rule702. Accessed in June 2007.

5. Edmond G, Mercer D. Daubert and the exclusionary ethos: The convergence of corporate and judicial attitudes toward the admissibility of expert evidence in tort litigation. Law and Policy. 2004;26(2):231–57.

6. Cranor C. Toxic Torts: Science, Law, and the Possibility of Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

7. Daubert v.Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Daubert II), 43 F3d 1311 (1995).

8. General Electric Co. v. Joiner, 522 U.S. 136 (1997).

9. Kumho Tire Co. v. Carmichael, 526 U.S. 137 (1999).

10. Conley JM, Gaylord SW. Science in the state courts: Daubert and the problem of outcomes. Judges’ J. 2005;44(5):6–15.

11. Logerquist v. McVey, 1 P.3d 113 (April 19, 2000).

12. Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Causation and causal inference in epidemiology. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S144–S50.

13. Haack S. Trial and error: The Supreme Court’s philosophy of science. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S66–S73.

14. Ozonoff D. Epistemology in the courtroom: A little ‘‘knowledge’’ is a dangerous thing. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S13–S15.

15. Kassirer JP, Cecil JS. Inconsistency in evidentiary standards for medical testimony: Disorder in the courts. JAMA. 2002;288(11):1382–87.

16. McGarity T. On the prospect of ‘‘Daubertizing’’ judicial review of risk assessment. Law and Contemporary Problems. 2003;66(155).

17. Weisgram et al. v. Marley Co. et al., 528 U.S. 440 (February 22, 2000). Available at: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/99–161.ZS.html. Accessed in June 2007.

18. Ozonoff D. Legal causation and responsibility for causing harm. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S35–S38.

19. Huber PW. Galileo’s Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom. New York: Basic Books, 1993.

20. Vidmar N. Expert evidence, the adversary system, and the jury. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S137–S43.

21. Allison v. McGhan Medical Corporation, 184 F3d 1300 (1999).

22. Lempert R. Civil juries and complex cases: Taking stock after twelve years. In: Litan RE, ed. Verdict: Assessing the Civil Jury System. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1993:181–247.

23. Berger M. Statements made during interviews conducted with SKAPP staff, May 15–June 6, 2003.

24. Castellow v. Chevron USA, 97 F.Supp. 2d 780 (2000).

25. Court order no. 29: Addressing subject-matter jurisdiction, expert testimony,and sanctions. In re: silica products litigation; MDL docket no. 1553. Signed by U.S. District Judge Jack JG of the Southern District of Texas, Corpus Christi Division. June 30, 2005. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/business/MDL-1553.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

26. Glater JD. The tort wars, at a turning point. New York Times. October 9, 2005.

27. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical hazard data availability study: What do we really know about the safety of high production volume chemicals? April 1998. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/chemrtk/pubs/general/hazchem.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

28. Gatowski SI, Dobbin SA, Richardson JT et al. Asking the gatekeepers: A national survey of judges on judging expert evidence in a post-Daubert world. Law Hum Behav. 2001;25(5):433–58.

29. Nelson v. American Home Products Corp., 92 F.Supp. 2d 954 (March 24, 2000).

30. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Press release: FDA moves to end use of bromocriptine for post-partum breast engorgement. Issued August 17, 1994. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/ANSWERS/ANS00594.html. Accessed in June 2007.

31. Brasher v. Sandoz Pharmaceuticals, 160 F.Supp. 2d 1291 (September 21, 2001).

32. Cecil JS. Ten years of judicial gatekeeping under Daubert. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S74–S80.

33. Jasanoff S. Law’s knowledge: science for justice in legal settings. Am J Public Health 2005;95(suppl 1):S49-S58.

34. Friedman LC, Daynard RA, Banthin CN. How tobacco-friendly science escapes scrutiny in the courtroom. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S16–S20.

35. Berger MA. What has a decade of Daubert wrought? Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S59–S65.

36. RAND Institute. Changes in the standards for admitting expert evidence in federal civil cases since the Daubert decision. 2001. Available at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1439.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

37. Goldsmith WJ. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Workforce Protections of the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the U.S. House of Representatives. June 14, 2001.

38. U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Scientific information in federal rulemaking. 2002. Available at: http://www.uschamber.com/issues/index/regulatory/scientific_rulemaking.htm. Accessed in June 2007.

39. Krimsky S. The weight of scientific evidence in policy and law. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S129–S36.

40. McGarity TO. Daubert and the proper role for the courts in health, safety, and environmental regulation. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S92–S98.

41. Neff RA, Goldman LR. Regulatory parallels to Daubert: Stakeholder influence, ‘‘sound science,’’ and the delayed adoption of health-protective standards. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S81–S91.

42. Wagner W. The perils of relying on interested parties to evaluate scientific quality. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S99–S106.

 

Chapter Fourteen References

1. Omnibus Consolidated and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1999 (also known as the Data Access Law/Act or Shelby Amendment). Public law no. 105–277, October 21, 1998.

2. Dockery DW, Pope CA, III, Zu Z et al. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. NEJM. 1993;329(24):1753–59.

3. Davis D. When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the Battle against Pollution. New York: Basic Books, 2002.

4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Press release: PR fact sheets to EPA proposes air standards for ozone. Issued November 27, 1996. Accessed in June 2007.

5. Sound Science Project. May 1997. Philip Morris document no. 2081324784/4788. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xcx65c00. Accessed in June 2007.

6. Philip Morris. Force field analysis (draft). 1997. Philip Morris document no. 2081324814/4818. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/adx65c00. Accessed in June 2007.

7. Baba A, Cook DM, McGarity TO et al. Legislating ‘‘sound science’’: The role of the tobacco industry. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(suppl 1):S20–S27.

8. Russo E. Debating Shelby. Scientist. 2001 Apr 2;15(7):14.

9. Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001: x515 (also known as the Data Quality Act or Information Quality Act). Public law no. 106–554, 2000.

10. Unofficial Transcript: Peer review standards for regulatory science and technical information (Workshop hosted by the National Research Council Policy and Global Affairs Division: Science, Technology, and Law Program.) November 18, 2003. Available at: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/stl/peer_review_transcript.pdf. Accessed in July 2007.

11. Geewax M. New law means more federal rules can be challenged. Cox News Service. September 30, 2002. Available at: http://thecre.com/news2003.html (excerpts only). Accessed in September 2006.

12. Rosenstock L. Protecting special interests in the name of ‘‘good science.’’ JAMA. 2006;295(20):2407–10.

13. Hornstein DT. Accounting for science: The independence of public research in the new, subterranean administrative law. Law and Contemporary Problems. 2003;66(4):227–46.

14. Tozzi J (Center for Regulatory Effectiveness [CRE]) on behalf of the CRE, Kansas Corn Growers Association, Triazine Network. Request for correction of information contained in the Atrazine Environmental Risk Assessment. November 25, 2002. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/quality/informationguidelines/documents/2807.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

15. Hayes TB, Collins A, Lee M et al. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. PNAS. 2002;99(8):5476–80.

16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances. Response to comments (OPP 02– 0026– 0198) by the Center for Regulatory Effectiveness (CRE) on the Atrazine Environmental Fate and Effects Risk Assessment (docket control no. OPP-34237C), November 4, 2002. March 26, 2003. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/quality/informationguidelines/documents/2807Response_..., pp. 17–21. Accessed in June 2007.

17. National Assessment Synthesis Team, U.S. Global Change Research Program. Climate change impacts on the United States: The potential consequences of climate variability and change. 2000. Available at: http://www.usgcrp.gov/usgcrp/nacc/. Accessed in June 2007.

18. Horner CC (senior fellow, Competitive Enterprise Institute). Letter to Whitman CT (administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Re: Petition under Federal Data Quality Act to Prohibit Further Dissemination of ‘‘Climate Action Report 2002.’’ June 4, 2002. Available at: http://www.cei.org/gencon/027,03040.cfm. Accessed in July 2007.

19. National Research Council. Climate change science: An analysis of some key questions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

20. Competitive Enterprise Institute. Press release: White House acknowledges climate report was not subjected to sound science law; CEI drops lawsuit against Bush Administration. Issued November 6, 2003. Available at: http://www.cei.org/gencon/003,03740.cfm. Accessed in June 2007.

21. Privitera D (Morgan Lewis, counselors at law). Letter to Office of Information Quality Guidelines; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Re: Request for correction of information. August 19, 2003. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/quality/informationguidelines/documents/12467.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

22. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Guidance for preventing asbestos disease among auto mechanics. June 1986. Publication no. EPA-560-OPTS-86– 002. Accessed in July 2007.

23. Hazen SB (principal deputy assistant administrator, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Letter to Privitera D (Morgan Lewis, LLP). Re: Response to request for correction (FRC) regarding the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Guidance for Preventing Asbestos Disease among Auto Mechanics (the Gold Book) pursuant to the U.S. EPA’s Information Quality Guidelines (RFC no. 12467). November 24, 2003. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/quality/informationguidelines/documents/12467response.... Accessed in June 2007.

24. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Current Best Practices for Preventing Asbestos Exposure Among Brake and Clutch Repair Workers. March 2007. Publication no. EPA-747-F-04-004.

25. Michaels D, Monforton C. How litigation shapes the scientific literature: asbestos and disease among automobile mechanics. J Law Policy. 2007;15(3): 1137–1169.

26. Goodman M, Morgan RW, Ray R et al. Cancer in asbestos-exposed occupational cohorts: A meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(5):453–65.

27. Paustenbach DJ, Richter RO, Finley BL et al. An evaluation of the historical exposures of mechanics to asbestos in brake dust. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2003;18(10):786–804.

28. Paustenbach DJ, Finley BL, Lu ET et al. Environmental and occupational health hazards associated with the presence of asbestos in brake linings and pads (1900 to present): A ‘‘state-of-the-art’’ review. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2004;7(1):25–80.

29. Goodman M, Teta MJ, Hessel PA et al. Mesothelioma and lung cancer among motor vehicle mechanics: A meta-analysis. Ann Occup Hyg. 2004;48(4):309–26.

30. Hessel PA, Teta MJ, Goodman M et al. Mesothelioma among brake mechanics: An expanded analysis of a case control study. Risk Analysis. 2004;24(3):547–52.

31. Paustenbach DJ, Finley BL, Sheehan PJ et al. Re: Evaluation of the size and type of free particulates collected from unused asbestos-containing brake components as related to potential for respirability. Am J Ind Med. 2006;49(1):60–61; author reply 62–64.

32. Egilman DS, Bohme SR. Author reply to Paustenbach DJ. Scientific method questioned. Int J Occup Environ Health 2006;12(3):290–92. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2006;12(3):292–93.

33. Castleman B. Letter to Docket EPA-HQ-OPPT-2006–0398: Release of updated guidance for preventing asbestos exposure among brake and clutch repair workers. Re: EPA revised Gold Book. October 23, 2006. Document no. EPA-HQ-OPPT-2006–0398–0011.

34. Available at: Exponent_invoices.pdf. Accessed in December 2007.

35. Kelsh MA, Craven VA (principal scientist and managing scientist, respectively,
Exponent Health Sciences, Inc.). Letter to Docket EPA-HQOPPT-2006– 0398: Release of updated guidance for preventing asbestos
exposure among brake and clutch repair workers
. October 20, 2006. Document no. EPA-HQ-OPPT-2006– 0398– 0007.1.

36. Kovacs WL, Hanneman RL (Vice President, Environment, Technology, and Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, and president, the Salt Institute, respectively). Letter to Office of Communications, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. May 14, 2003. Available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/infoquality/request&response/8a.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

37. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH–Sodium Collaborative Research Group. NEJM. 2001;344(1):3–10.

38. Roth CA (associate director for Scientific Program Operation, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute). Letter to Kovaks [sic] WL, Hanneman RL (Vice President, Environment, Technology, and Regulatory Affairs, Chamber of Commerce; and President, the Salt Institute, respectively). August 19, 2003. Available at: http://www.ombwatch.org/info/dataquality/HHS_SaltResponse.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

39. Kovacs WL, Hanneman RL (vice president, Environment, Technology, and Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; and President, the Salt Institute, respectively) Letter to associate director for Communications (National Institutes of Health). Re: U.S. Chamber/Salt Institute Information Quality Appeal. September 22, 2003. Available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/infoquality/request&response/8c.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

40. Alving B (Acting Director, National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute). Letter to Kovaks [sic] WL, Hanneman RL (Vice President, Environment, Technology, and Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Chamber of Commerce; and president, the Salt Institute, respectively). Re: Request for reconsideration submitted September 22, 2003. February 11, 2004. Available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/infoquality/request&response/8d.shtml. Accessed in June 2007.

41. Salt Institute and U.S. Chamber of Commerce v. Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary, Health and Human Services, case no. 04-CV-359. (Complaint filed March 31, 2004).

42. Salt Institute and U.S. Chamber of Commerce v. Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary, Health and Human Services, civil action no. 04–359 (GBL) (dismissed November 15, 2004). Available at: http://www.ombwatch.org/info/dataquality/HHS_SaltCourtDecision.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

43. Calabrese DB (vice president, Government Relations, Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers). Letter to Stevenson TA (secretary, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission). Re: Information Quality guidelines: Final report on electric clothes dryers and lint ignition characteristics, May 2003. September 12, 2003. Available at: http://www.cpsc.gov/library/correction/electric.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

44. Elder J (assistant executive director, Office of Hazard Identification and Reduction, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission). Letter to Calabrese DB (vice president, Government Relations, Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers). Re: Information Quality guidelines: Final report on electric clothes dryers and lint ignition characteristics, May 2003. November 21, 2003. Available at: http://www.cpsc.gov/library/correction/electric.pdf. Accessed in July 2007.

45. Cook JA (technical director, Chemical Products Corporation). Letter to Quality Guidelines Staff, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Subject: Request for correction of the IRIS barium and compounds substance file— Information disseminated by EPA that does not comply with EPA or OMB Information Quality Guidelines. October 29, 2002. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/quality/informationguidelines/documents/2293.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

46. Gilman P (assistant administrator, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Letter to Cook JA (technical director, Chemical Products Corporation). Re: Request for Correction of the IRIS Barium and Compounds Substance File Pursuant to EPA and OMB Information Quality Guidelines (IQG #2293). January 30, 2003. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/quality/informationguidelines/documents/2293Response.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

47. Gilman P (assistant administrator, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Letter to Cook JA (technical director, Chemical Products Corporation). Re: request for correction of the IRIS barium and compounds substance file pursuant to EPA and OMB information quality guidelines (IQG no. 2293). December 11, 2003.

48. Office of Management and Budget. Peer review and information quality proposed bulletin and request for comment. August 29, 2003.

49. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Science Advisory Board. 2005. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/sab/. Accessed in June 2007.

50. Expert panel on the role of science at the EPA. Report to Reilly WK, EPA Administrator. Safeguarding the future: Credible science, credible decisions. 1992. Report no. EPA/600/9–91/050.

51. EPA Science Policy Council. Science Policy Council handbook: Peer review. January 1998. Document no. EPA 100-B-98– 001.

52. EPA Science Policy Council. Science Policy Council handbook: Peer review. 2d ed. December 2000. Document no. EPA-100-B-00–001.

53. Smith R. Peer review: Reform or revolution? BMJ. 1997;315(7111):759–60.

54. Lock S. A Difficult Balance: Editorial Peer Review in Medicine. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, 1985.

55. Gans JS, Shepherd GB. How are the mighty fallen: Rejected classic articles by leading economists. J Econ Perspect. 1994;8(1):165–79.

56. Shapiro S, Guston D. Comments on the Office of Management and Budget’s Proposed Bulletin on Peer Review and Information Quality. December 12, 2003. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/2003iq/87.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

57. Jasanoff S. Comments on Office of Management and Budget Proposed Bulletin on Peer Review and Information Quality, December 16, 2003. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/2003iq/159.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

58. Taylor MR. Statement before the Committee on Peer Review Standards for Regulatory Science and Technical Information of the Science, Technology, and Law Program of the National Academies. November 18, 2003. Available at: http://www7.nationalacademies.org/stl/Taylor_Presentation_pdf.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

59. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). AAAS Resolution: On the OMB Proposed Peer Review Bulletin. Approved by AAAS Council on March 9, 2004. Available at: http://archives.aaas.org/docs/resolutions.php?doc_id=434. Accessed in June 2007.

60. American Public Health Association. Interim policy statement late-breaker 03–1: ‘‘Threats to public health science.’’ Adopted November 18, 2003.

61. Cohen JJ, Wells RD (president, American Association of Medical Colleges, and president, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, respectively). Letter to Schwab M (Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget). Re: Proposed Bulletin on Peer Review and Information Quality, 68 FR 54023–29. December 4, 2003.
Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/2003iq/23.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

62. Phillips K (president, Council on Governmental Relations [COGR]). Letter to Schwab M (Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget). Re: Proposed Bulletin on Peer Review and Information Quality, 68 FR 54023–29. December 15, 2003. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/2003iq/78.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

63. Alberts B (president, National Academies of Science, and chair, National Research Council). Letter to Graham J (administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget). December 15, 2003. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/2003iq/115.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

64. King E (assistant general counsel, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America). Letter to Schwab M (Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, OMB). Re: Proposed Bulletin on Peer Review and Information Quality. Fed. Reg. September 15, 2003;68:54023. December 15, 2003. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/inforeg/2003iq/118.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

65. Kennedy D. Disclosure and disinterest. Science. 2004;303(5654):15.

66. Office of Management and Budget. Final Information Quality Bulletin for Peer Review. December 16, 2004.

67. OMB Watch. OMB Watch analysis on Final Peer Review Bulletin. 2005. Available at: http://www.ombwatch.org/article/articleview/2594/1/232?TopicID=3. Accessed in June 2007.

68. Houck O. Tales from a troubled marriage: Science and law in environmental policy. Science. 2003;302(5652):1926–29.

 

Chapter Fifteen References

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Preventing Lead Poisoning in Young Children. Statement issued October 1991. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/books/plpyc/contents.htm. Accessed in July 2007.

2. Blood lead levels—United States, 1999–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2005;54(20):513–516.

3. Ferber D. Overhaul of CDC panel revives lead safety debate. Science. 2002;298(5594):732.

4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment for Omaha Lead Refinery, Omaha, Douglas County, Nebraska; EPA facility ID: NESFN0703481. June 7, 2004. Available at: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hac/PHA/omahalead/omahalead.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

5. Washington State Department of Ecology. Everett smelter site (Everett, Washington) integrated final cleanup action plan and final environmental impact statement for the upland area. Vol. 2, appendix B: Responsiveness survey. November 19, 1999.

6. Staff of Rep. Markey EJ (D-MA-7). Turning lead into gold: How the Bush administration is poisoning the Lead Advisory Committee at the CDC [report]. October 8, 2002.

7. Weiss R. HHS seeks science advice to match Bush views. Washington Post. September 17, 2002:A1.

8. Tumulty K. Jesus and the FDA. Time. October 5, 2002.

9. On health and medicine: When politics trumps science. San Francisco Chronicle. January 5, 2003.

10. Couzin J. Plan B: A collision of science and politics. Science. 2005;310(5745):38–39

11. Michaels D, Bingham E, Boden L et al. Advice without dissent. Science. 2002;298(5594):703.

12. Howard III WE. Advice without dissent at the DOD. Science. 2002;298(5597):1334–35.

13. Loomis D. Unpopular opinions need not apply. Science. 2002;298(5597):1335–36.

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16. American Public Health Association. Policy resolution 2003–6: Ensuring the scientific credibility of government public health advisory committees. Adopted by the Governing Council November 18, 2003.

17. National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine. Science and technology in the national interest: Ensuring the best presidential and advisory committee appointments. Washington, DC:National Academies Press, 2005.

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20. Federal Advisory Committee Act. Public law no. 92–463, 1972.

21. Steinbrook R. Science, politics, and federal advisory committees. NEJM. 2004;350(14):1454–60.

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35. Gelbspan R. Boiling Point: How Politicians, Big Oil and Coal, Journalists, and Activists Have Fueled the Climate Crisis—and What We Can Do to Avert Disaster. New York: Basic Books, 2004.

36. Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). Scientific integrity in policymaking: an investigation into the Bush administration’s misuse of science. March 2004.

37. Stephenson JB (Director, Natural Resources and the Environment, U.S. General Accounting Office). Testimony before the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, U.S. Senate. Climate change: Preliminary observations on the administration’s February 2002 climate initiative. October 1, 2003. Report no. GAO-04–131T.

38. Revkin AC. Climate expert says NASA tried to silence him. New York Times. January 29, 2006.

39. Revkin AC. NASA chief backs agency openness. New York Times. February 4, 2006.

40. Revkin AC. Call for openness at NASA adds to reports of pressure. New York Times. February 16, 2006.

41. Revkin AC. A young Bush appointee resigns his post at NASA. New York Times. February 8, 2006.

42. Regalado A, Carlton J. Politics and economics: Agency retreats from discounting global warming; hurricane dispute becomes flashpoint as scientists decry White House policies. Wall Street Journal. February 16, 2006:A4.

43. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Statement on scientific openness. February 4, 2006. Available at: http://www.nasa.gov/about/highlights/griffin_science.html. Accessed in June 2007.

44. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Message from the under secretary: Encouragement of scientific debate and transparency within NOAA. February 14, 2006. Available at: http://www.peer.org/docs/noaa/06_15_2_sci_open.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

45. Revkin AC. Bush aide softened greenhouse gas links to global warming. New York Times. June 8, 2005:A1.

46. Revkin AC. Former Bush aide who edited reports is hired by Exxon. New York Times. June 15, 2005.

47. White House Office of the Press Secretary. President Bush meets with supporters of U.S. military in Iraq and Afghanistan [transcript]. June 26, 2006. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/06/20060626–2.html. Accessed in June 2007.

48. Oral Arguments for Massachusetts et al. v. Environmental Protection Agency et al. [Supreme Court transcript]. November 29, 2006. Available at: http://www.supremecourtus.gov/oral_arguments/argument_transcripts/05–1.... Accessed in June 2007.

49. Mufson S, Eilperin J. Energy firms come to terms with climate change. Washington Post. November 25, 2006:A1.

50. World Health Organization. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 3d ed. Vol. 1: Recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland; 2004.

51. National Research Council. Arsenic in drinking water: 2001 update. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

52. Walsh E. Arsenic drinking water standard issued; after seven-month scientific review, EPA backs Clinton-established levels. Washington Post. June 8, 2001; section A:A31.

53. Mooney C. The Republican War on Science. New York: Basic Books; 2005.

54. U.S. Government Accountability Office. Clean Air Act: Observations on EPA’s cost-benefit analysis of its mercury control options. February 2005. Report no. GAO-05–252.

55. Eilperin J. Report accuses EPA of slanting analysis; Hill researchers say agency fixed pollution study to favor Bush’s ‘‘Clear Skies.’’ Washington Post. December 3, 2005:A8.

56. Miller AC, Hamburger T. EPA relied on industry for plywood plant pollution rule. Los Angeles Times. May 21, 2004.

57. Hauptmann M, Lubin JH, Stewart PA et al. Mortality from lymphohematopoietic malignancies among workers in formaldehyde industries. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(21):1615–23.

58. Pinkerton LE, Hein MJ, Stayner LT. Mortality among a cohort of garment workers exposed to formaldehyde: An update. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61(3):193–200.

59. International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 88: Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-Butoxypropan-2-ol. December 2006.

60. Trombulak SC, Wilcove DS, Male TD. Science as a smoke screen. Science. 2006;312(5776):973.

61. Michaels D. Statement before the House of Representatives Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources’ oversight hearing: The impact of science on public policy. February 4, 2004.

62. H.R. 1662. Sound Science for Endangered Species Act Planning Act of 2003. Introduced April 8, 2003, by Rep. Walden G (R-OR-2).

63. H.R. 3824. Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery Act of 2005. Introduced September 19, 2005, by Rep. Pombo RW (R-CA-11).

64. Cart J. Land study on grazing denounced: Two retired specialists say Interior excised their warnings on the effects on wildlife and water. Los Angeles Times. June 18, 2005.

65. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Press release: FDA announces framework for moving emergency contraception medication to over-the-counter status. Issued July 31, 2006. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/NEWS/2006/NEW01421.html. Accessed in June 2007.

66. Trussell J, Hatcher RA, Cates Jr. W et al. Contraceptive failure in the United States: An update. Studies in Family Planning. 1990;21(1):51–54.

67. Jones EF, Forrest JD. Contraceptive failure rates based on the 1988 NSFG. Family Planning Perspectives. 1992;24(1):12–19.

68. U.S. House Committee on Governmental Reform, minority staff. The content of federally funded abstinence-only education programs (report prepared for Rep. Waxman HA). 2004. Available at: http://oversight.house.gov/Documents/20041201102153-50247.pdf. Accessed in February 2008.

69. Stein R. Health experts criticize changes in STD panel. Washington Post. May 9, 2006:A3.

70. American Medical Association. Resolution 443: FDA rejection of over-the-counter status for emergency contraception pills. June 2004. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/15/res_hod443_a04.doc. Accessed in June 2007.

71. Malec K. The abortion–breast cancer link: How politics trumped science and informed consent. J Am Physicians and Surgeons. 2003;8(2):41–45.

72. U.S. House Committee on Governmental Reform, minority staff. False and misleading information provided by federally funded pregnancy resource centers (report prepared for Rep. Waxman HA). July 2006. Available at: http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20060717101140-30092.pdf. Accessed in February 2008.

73. Keiger D. Political science. Johns Hopkins Magazine. 2004;56(5).

74. U.S. General Accounting Office. Needle exchange programs: Research suggests promise as an AIDS prevention strategy. March 1993. Report no. GAO/HRD-93-60.

75. Lurie P, Reingold AL, Bowser B et al. The public health impact of needle exchange programs in the United States and abroad: Summary, conclusions, and recommendations. Prepared by the School of Public Health, University of California–Berkeley, and the Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California–San Francisco, for the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). October 1993. Available at: http://www.caps.ucsf.edu/pubs/reports/pdf/NEPReportSummary1993.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

76. Experts blast Shalala on needle exchange remarks. AIDS Alert. 1996;11(3):33–34.

77. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Press release: Research shows needle exchange programs reduce HIV infections without increasing drug use. Issued April 20, 1998. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/1998pres/980420a.html. Accessed in June 2007.

78. Pear R. Inquiry confirms top Medicare official threatened actuary over cost of drug benefits. New York Times. July 7, 2004.

79. Pear R. New White House estimate lifts drug benefit cost to $720 billion. New York Times. February 9, 2005.

80. Jacoby M. EU chemicals proposal prompts global mobilization led by U.S. Wall Street Journal. June 27, 2006:A6.

81. SourceWatch. C. Boyden Gray. 2006. Available at: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=C._Boyden_Gray. Accessed in June 2007.

82. World Health Organization. Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases: Report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultation. Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.

83. Steiger WR (special assistant to the Secretary for International Affairs, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Letter to Lee JW (director general, WHO). January 5, 2004. Available at: http://www.commercialalert.org/bushadmincomment.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

84. Dyer O. U.S. government rejects WHO’s attempts to improve diet. BMJ. 2004;328(7433):185.

85. Dyer O. United States wins more time to lobby against WHO diet plan. BMJ. 2004;328(7434):245.

86. Avorn J (professor of medicine, Harvard Medical School, and chief, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital). Letter to Rep. Waxman H (D-CA-30). May 25, 2006. Available at: http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20060626111957-56484.pdf. Accessed in February 2008.

87. U.S. House Committee on Governmental Reform, minority staff. Prescription for harm: The decline in FDA enforcement activity (report prepared for Rep. Waxman HA). June 2006. Available at: http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20060627101434-98349.pdf. Accessed in February 2008.

88. Goozner M. FDA seeking early retirements. GoozNews [blog]. June 23, 2006. Available at: http://www.gooznews.com/archives/000432.html. Accessed in June 2007.

89. Union of Concerned Scientists, Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Survey Summary. 2005. Available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/scientific_integrity/interference/us-fishwildlife-.... Accessed in June 2007.

90. Union of Concerned Scientists. Summary of National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service Scientist Survey. 2005.

91. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Public law no. 99– 499, 1986.

92. Graham M. Regulation by shaming. Atlantic Monthly. 2000;285(4):36–40.

93. Alert: EPA proposes rollback on toxic pollution reporting. OMB Watch. 2005;6(20). Available at: http://www.ombwatch.org/article/articleview/3117/1/396. Accessed in June 2007.

94. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program. TRI chemical list changes (1987–2005). Available at: http://www.epa.gov/triinter/chemical/ChemListChanges05.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

95. Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc. Comments on the Toxics Release Inventory burden reduction proposed rule. Fed. Reg. October 4, 2005;70:57822. January 12, 2006. Submitted to Docket EPA-HQ-TRI-2005– 0073. Document no. EPA-HQ-TRI-2005– 0073–1958.1.

96. National Association of Manufacturers. Comments on Toxics Release Inventory burden reduction: Proposed rule. January 10, 2005. Docket no. EPA-HQ-TRI-2005– 0073. Document no. EPA-HQ-TRI-2005–0073–3022.

97. Edison Electric Institute. Comments on ‘‘Toxics Release Inventory burden reduction proposed rule.’’ January 13, 2006. Docket no. EPA-HQ-TRI-2005– 0073. Document no. EPA-HQ-TRI-2005– 0073–2720.1.

98. Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association (SOCMA). Comments on the Toxics Release Inventory burden reduction proposed rule (10/04/05, 70 FR 57822). January 13, 2005. Docket no. EPA-HQ-TRI-2005– 0073.

99. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Toxics Release Inventory burden reduction final rule. Fed. Reg. 2006;71(246):76932– 45.

100. Downey K. U.S. drops report on mass layoffs. Washington Post. January 2, 2003:D11.

101. Schemo DJ. Nation’s charter schools lagging behind, U.S. test scores reveal. New York Times. August 17, 2004.

102. Schemo DJ. U.S. cutting back on details in data about charter schools. New York Times. August 29, 2004.

103. Krugman P. The great wealth transfer. Rolling Stone. November 30, 2006.

104. Glasser SB. Annual terror report won’t include numbers. Washington Post. April 19, 2005:A17.

105. Rood J. Bush admin won’t release Iraq attack numbers. TPM Muckraker.com [blog]. Available at: http://www.tpmmuckraker.com/archives/002169.php. Accessed in July 2007.

106. Levey NN, Zavis A. U.S. drops Baghdad electricity reports. Los Angeles Times. July 27, 2007.

107. Mervis J. Climate sensors dropped from U.S. weather satellite package. Science. 2006;312(5780):1580.

108. Mervis J. NOAA loses funding to gather long-term climate data. Science. 2005;307(5707):188.

 

Chapter Sixteen References

1. U.S. Department of Energy; Office of Environmental Management. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it. January 1995. Report no. DOE/EM-0266.

2. Groves LM. Now It Can Be Told: The Story of the Manhattan Project. New York: Da Capo, 1962.

3. Smyth HD. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes: The Official Report on the Development of the Atomic Bomb under the Auspices of the United States Government, 1940–1945. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1945.

4. Robinson GO. The Oak Ridge Story: The Saga of a People Who Share in History. Kingsport, TN: Southern Publishers, 1950.

5. O’Neill K. Building the bomb. In: Schwartz SI, ed. Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998:33–104.

6. Dean G. Report on the Atom: What You Should Know about the Atomic Energy Program of the United States. New York: Knopf, 1953.

7. Makhijani A, Schwartz SI, Weida WJ. Nuclear waste management and environmental remediation. In: Schwartz SI, ed. Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998:353–94.

8. Norris RS, Kosiak SM, Schwartz SI. Deploying the bomb. In: Schwartz SI, ed. Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1998:105–96.

9. U.S. Department of Energy, Highly Enriched Uranium Working Group. Environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the department’s storage of highly enriched uranium; December 1996. Report no. DOE/EH-0525.

10. U.S. Department of Energy, Plutonium Working Group. Environmental, safety, and health vulnerabilities associated with the department’s plutonium storage; November 1994. Report no. DOE/EH-0415.

11. Hacker BC. The Dragon’s Tail: Radiation Safety in the Manhattan Project, 1942–1946. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.

12. Franklin JC (Manager, Oak Ridge Operations) to Wilson CL (General Manager, Washington). Subject: Medical Policy. September 26, 1947. Accessed in December 2007.

13. ChemRisk, Inc. Task 2 Report- Mercury Releases from Lithium Enrichment at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant- A Reconstruction of Historical Releases and Off-Site Doses and Health Risks. Submitted to the Tennessee Department of Health. July 1999.

14. National Research Council. Toxicological effects of methylmercury. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

15. Magnuson E. They lied to us: Unsafe, aging U.S. weapons plants are stirring fear and disillusion. Time. October 31, 1988:60–65.

16. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Overview of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program. Fall 2001.

17. Anigstein R, Thurber WC, Mauro JJ et al. (S. Cohen and Associates, under contract no. 1W-2603-LTNX with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air). Technical support document: Potential recycling of scrap metal from nuclear facilities. Part 1: Radiological assessment of exposed individuals. Vol. 1, 2001. Chapter 4: Quantities and characteristics of potential sources of scrap metal from DOE facilities and commercial nuclear power plants. Available at:  http://www.epa.gov/rpdweb00/docs/source-management/tsd/scrap_tsd_041802_... Accessed in February 2008.

18. U.S. Department of Energy Top-to-Bottom Review Team. Review of the Environmental Management Program. February 4, 2002.

19. Memorandum from Wilson CE (chief, Insurance Branch, AEC) to Vallado AC (deputy declassification officer, Declassification Branch, AEC). Re: Review of document by Knowlton. December 20, 1948. Accessed in December 2007.

20. Michaels D. In memorium: Thomas F. Mancuso, MD, MPH (1912–2004). Am J Ind Med. 2005;47(1):1–3.

21. Mancuso TF, Stewart AM, Kneale GW. Radiation exposures of Hanford workers dying from cancer and other causes. Health Physics. 1977;33:369–85.

22. Kneale GW, Mancuso TF, Stewart AM. Hanford radiation study 3: A cohort study of the cancer risks from radiation to workers at Hanford (1944–1977 deaths) by the method of regression models in life-table. Br J Ind Med. 1981;38:156–66.

23. Kneale GW, Mancuso TF, Stewart AM. Identification of occupational mortality risks for Hanford workers. Br J Ind Med. 1984;41:6–8.

24. Kneale GW, Mancuso TF, Stewart AM. Job-related mortality risks of Hanford workers and their relation to cancer effects of measured doses of external radiation. Br J Ind Med. 1984;41:9–14.

25. President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. Chapter 10: Atomic veterans: Human experimentation in connection with atomic bomb tests. The Human Radiation Experiments: The Final Report of the President’s Advisory Committee. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

26. Radiation-exposed Veterans Compensation Act. Public law no. 100–321, May 20, 1988.

27. Orphan Drug Act. Public law no. 97–414, January 4, 1983.

28. Report of the National Institutes of Health ad hoc Working Group to Develop Radioepidemiology Tables. 1985.

29. Eisenbud M. An Environmental Odyssey: People, Pollution, and Politics in the Life of a Practical Scientist. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 1990.

30. Ball H. Justice Downwind: America’s Atomic Testing Program in the 1950s. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

31. Udall SL. The Myths of August. New York: Pantheon, 1994.

32. Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA). Public law no. 101–426, October 15, 1990.

33. Parascandola M. Uncertain science and a failure of trust: The NIH radioepidemiologic tables and compensation for radiation-induced cancer. Isis. 2002;93:559–84.

34. Janofsky M. 111 uranium miners left waiting as payments for exposure lapse. New York Times. March 27, 2001:A1.

35. Michaels D (assistant secretary for Environment Safety and Health, Department of Energy). Memorandum to Minsk R (National Economic Council). Subject: Work products from interagency working groups. March 31, 2000.

36. Warrick J. Paducah workers sue firms; class action cites radiation exposure, seeks $10 billion. Washington Post. September 4, 1999:A1.

37. Warrick J. Administration sides with workers in uranium factory suit. Washington Post. May 31, 2003:A2.

38. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Safety, and Health. Phase 2 independent investigation of the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant: Environment, safety, and health practices, 1952–1990. February 2000.

39. Memorandum to the files of Dunham CL (director, Division of Biology and Medicine, AEC) and Bruner HD (chief, Medical Research Branch, Division of Biology and Medicine, AEC). Subject: Neptunium237 contamination problem, Paducah, Kentucky, February 4, 1960; filed March 11, 1960. Accessed in December 2007.

40. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environment Safety and Health. Independent investigation of the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant. Vol. 1: Past environment, safety, and health practices. May 2000.

41. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Safety, and Health. Independent investigation of the East Tennessee Technology Park. Vol. 1: Past environment, safety, and health practices. October 2000.

42. Transcript: U.S. Department of Energy public meeting with assistant secretary of Energy, Dr. David Michaels, for employees of the Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plant. Comfort Inn, Piketon, OH. October 31, 1999.

43. Transcript: U.S. Department of Energy public hearing—injured [Los Alamos National Laboratory] workers. Northern New Mexico Community College, Espanola, NM. March 18, 2000.

44. Transcript: U.S. Department of Energy public meeting: Workers’ Compensation initiative [for Pantex Plant employees]. Civic Center Grand Plaza, Amarillo, TX. June 29, 2000.

45. Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act (EEOICPA). Public law no. 106–398, October 30, 2000.

46. Government Accountability Office. Department of Energy, Office of Worker Advocacy: Deficient controls led to millions of dollars in improper and questionable payments to contractors. May 2006. Report no. GAO-06-547.

47. Office of Sen. Grassley C (R-IA). Press release: Grassley urges Senate conferees to support changes to Energy Employee Occupational Illness Compensation Program. Issued September 14, 2004.

48. Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005: Part 4, Division C, Subtitle E: Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program. Public law no. 108–375, October 28, 2004.

 

Chapter Seventeen References

1. Mintz M. At Any Cost: Corporate Greed, Women, and the Dalkon Shield. New York: Pantheon, 1985.

2. Hicks K. Surviving the Dalkon Shield IUD: Women v. the Pharmaceutical Industry. New York: Teachers College Press, 1994.

3. Mundy A. Dispensing with the Truth: The Victims, the Drug Companies, and the Dramatic Story behind the Battle over Fen-Phen. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001.

4. Marshall E. Buried data can be hazardous to a company’s health. Science. 2004;304:1576–77.

5. Nissen SE, Wolski K. Effect of rosiglitazone on the risk of myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular causes. NEJM 2007;356:
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6. Psaty BM, Furberg CD. Rosiglitazone and cardiovascular risk. NEJM 2007;356:2522–4.

7. Vernick JS, Mair JS, Teret SP et al. Role of litigation in preventing product-related injuries. Epidemiol Rev. 2003;25(1):90–98.

8. Transportation Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation (TREAD) Act. Public law no. 106– 414, November 1, 2000.

9. Public Citizen, Safetyforum.com. The real root cause of the Ford-Firestone tragedy: Why the public is still at risk. April 2001. Available at: http://www.citizen.org/documents/rootcause.pdf. Accessed in June 2007.

10. Conrad JW Jr. Open secrets: The widespread availability of information about the health and environmental effects of chemicals. Law and Contemporary Problems. 2006;69(3):141–65.

11. Givelber DJ, Robbins A. Public health vs. court-sponsored secrecy. Law and Contemporary Problems. 2006;69(3):131–39.

12. Felcher EM. It’s No Accident: How Corporations Sell Dangerous Baby Products. Monroe, ME, and Philadelphia, PA: Common Courage Press, 2001.

13. Anderson JS. Hidden from the public by order of the court: The case against government-enforced secrecy. SC Law Rev. 2004;55:711–59.

14. Casey M. OSHA: Discounted lives. Kansas City Star. December 11, 2005:A1.

15. Barab J. Kansas City Star clobbers OSHA. Confined Space Blog. December 12, 2005. Available at: http://spewingforth.blogspot.com/2005/12/kansascity-star-clobbers-osha.html. Accessed in June 2007.

16. Barab J. What’s more effective? OSHA penalties or suing the bastards? Confined Space Blog. February 2, 2006. Available at: http://spewingforth.blogspot.com/2006/02/whats-more-effective-osha-penal.... Accessed
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17. Vladeck DC. Federal preemptions of state tort law: The problem of medical drugs and devices: Preemption and regulatory failure. Pepp L Rev. 2005;33:95–131.

18. Levin M, Miller AC. Industries get quiet protection from lawsuits. Los Angeles Times. February 19, 2006.

19. Sharkey CM. Preemption by preamble: Federal agencies and the federalization of tort reform. DePaul Law Review. 2007;56.

20. Associated Press. Vioxx judge finds FDA approval of drug label doesn’t avert claims. Wall Street Journal (online). July 3, 2007.

21. Tesoriero HW. Merck’s Vioxx troubles may ebb with ruling poised to aid defense. Wall Street Journal. April 13, 2007:A3.

 

Chapter Eighteen References

 

1. Dyckman LJ (Director, Food and Agriculture Issues, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, U.S. General Accounting Office). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring, and the District of Columbia; Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate. Food Safety: U.S. needs a single agency to administer a unified, risk-based inspection system. August 4, 1999. Report no. GAO/T-RCED-99-256.

2. Americans growing less confident in FDA’s job on safety, poll shows. Wall Street Journal (online). May 24, 2006.

3. World Health Organization. Fact sheet no. 187: Air pollution. September 2000. Available at: http://www.who.int//inf-fs/en/fact187.html. Accessed in July 2007.

4. Merton RK. Priorities in scientific discovery: A chapter in the sociology of science. Amer Soc Rev. 1957;22(6):635–59.

5. American Competitiveness and Corporate Accountability Act (also known as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act). Public law no. 107–204, 2002.

6. Union of Concerned Scientists. Restoring scientific integrity in policymaking [letter]. 2006. Available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/scientific_integrity/interference/scientists-signo.... Accessed in June 2007.

7. Davidoff F, DeAngelis CD, Drazen JM et al. Sponsorship, authorship, and accountability. JAMA. 2002;286(10):1232–34.

8. Michaels D, Wagner W. Disclosure in regulatory science. Science. 2003;302(5653):2073.

9. S. 2812. Proposed amendments to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Introduced November 4, 1971, by Sen. Nelson G (D-WI).

10. Krimsky S. Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research? Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2003.

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